Unbaked lumps probably mean you aren't mixing it enough. Try starting with a little less flour and knead in more as you go.
Another issue is you may not be kneading it enough. Next time try using the windowpane test. You don't have to do this every time, but if you're having trouble with a specific recipe this will help you figure out how the dough should "feel" when its ready by giving you a visual indicator. I've found that when I have dough rising problems, it's usually because I didn't knead long enough. This should also help fix your mixing issue.
That being said, there are two good methods to see if dough has risen enough. One is to let it rise in a marked container (though this doesn't work well for shaped loaves or if you aren't supposed to let it double). The other is the poke test. From a Bon Appetit online article:
To test for doneness, use the finger test: Poke it with 2 fingers; it holds the indentation, it's ready.
Generally I poke it and if it pops right back out, it's not ready. For sourdough, if it holds its shape for a moment and then slowly starts to expand back, it's perfect. For other breads, holding the indentation is a good indicator. This isn't necessarily advisable for delicate doughs. If you're working with a delicate dough, try the test on one loaf that you don't "need" to be perfect. You can use this as a relative time measurement for the future.