There's a lot of variety, mainly depending on whether you want something else that's sweet or something that's sweet and has no calories.
Honey, molasses, maple syrup, brown sugar, raw sugar, cane sugar, and (per above) date syrup are all sweet and caloric. Honey, molasses, maple syrup and date syrup are more viscous (goopy). Brown sugar is just regular sugar mixed with molasses. Raw sugar is like granulated sugar but not bleached.
As for non-caloric sweeteners, you have splenda, xylitol, reb-a (Truvia), erythritol, stevia, and aspartame. Splenda is made from sugar and the most similar functionally, although it's not identical. Xylitol is natural but has a cooling aftertaste that doesn't work well in many dishes. Rebiana is chemically similar to stevia's active compound and sounds good but doesn't work as well as it says; it's also mixed with fillers and erythritol. Erythritol is a form of fermented glucose. Stevia is a plant extract that has great sweetness but a lingering aftertaste; some preparations add bulk, but the liquid itself is much sweeter by volume than sugar. Aspartame (nutrasweet) is chemical death, and I recommend you cut it out of your diet.