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I made a really big one-pot meal in a cast iron (enameled) dutch oven and I'm fairly lazy. So I take all the leftovers once cooled, slap the lid on, and put it in the fridge.

The next day, it's time to reheat the food. Again, being lazy (and not owning a microwave), I want to just put the entire dutch oven right onto the stove and crank on the gas.

Is there any danger in damaging the dutch oven (cracking of the iron or enamel) by putting very cold iron onto the burner?

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Check this question on thermal shock affecting pans of different materials. –  J.A.I.L. Nov 27 '12 at 8:32
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My question is, there's only a 30 degree temperature difference between fridge and room temp but the flame is hundreds of degrees different so I'm wondering why 30 degrees would matter toward cracking the enamel. –  Rob Nov 27 '12 at 12:31
    
As an aside: if your Dutch oven were "naked" cast iron I would worry about the iron reacting with the food if you leave it in the fridge overnight, especially if the food is acidic. But enamel is almost completely inert, so you're safe on that count. –  Erik P. Nov 27 '12 at 15:43

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According to Le Creuset's care and usage instructions for their enamel coated cast iron cookware, sudden drastic temperature changes may result in cracking. Other anecdotal remarka on various cooking websites also agree that cracking can occur from sudden tempurature changes.

Le Creuset website

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Cracking of the enamel, I presume, and not the iron. –  Rob Nov 27 '12 at 12:28
    
That warning is probably more for the enamel coating, which can craze in that scenario, than the underlying cast iron, which is quite resilient. –  SAJ14SAJ Nov 27 '12 at 13:56
    
I have yet to see the actual cast iron crack in all my years of owning cast iron pans. They must mean the enamel can crack under extreme temperature changes. –  Kristina Lopez Nov 27 '12 at 14:17

Yes, there's a danger but mostly if you're blasting the dutch oven with a lot of heat. Say from the 'fridge to the hottest burner of a professional stove. I wouldn't worry too much; those things are pretty tough. (I've done this many times in the decade I've cooked with dutch ovens. So far, so good.)

Another reason you likely don't want to do this is because the cycles of reheating (if you reheat more than once) may degrade the flavor.

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Yes, I would worry more about reactions between the cast iron and the contents, than reheating the iron. As long as it is not acetylene torch fast, the pot itself should be fine. –  SAJ14SAJ Nov 27 '12 at 13:57

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