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What product can I use to thick a filling that is sweet and does not get heated? The filling is made of butter and homemade marshmallow.

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You might want to provide the full recipe, but it sounds like marshmallow is the thickener here. Marshmallow is essentially a cooked Italian meringue stabilized with gelatin, but gelatin requires heat to thicken, so you cannot add more if you are not willing to heat the filling. –  SAJ14SAJ Jun 29 '13 at 12:13
    
Instant pudding (pick a flavor) will thicken if it's got water to work with, but I'm not seeing any in your recipe. –  Wayfaring Stranger Jun 29 '13 at 18:31
    
Cornstarch may help, and homemade marshmallows are commonly dusted with it, so it wouldn't be an odd addition. –  Satanicpuppy Jul 3 '13 at 18:03
    
The recipe would really help here. Both butter and (most) marshmallow are usually solid while cold, so it would be useful to know what else is in this making it thin out. –  sourd'oh Jul 8 '13 at 18:34
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The number of available thickeners is very large. Some work for high temperatures, others for low temperatures. For your filling I would use Iota Carageenan (Its used for thickening in many commercial ice cream products). It might be a bit difficult to find. Your second choice would be Xantham Gum.

When using these thickeners be sure to hydrate correctly and measure thickener weight as precisely as possible (to the gram). Between 0.5% and 1% of the liquid's weight is a safe bet but it will require some testing.

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Carrageenan must be heated to dissolve into the base liquid, so I don't know that it would work for the submitter. (Source: willpowder.net/carrageenan.html) –  sourd'oh Jul 8 '13 at 18:33
    
Great observation but it still could work. While the filling itself is not heated, particular ingredients must be heated at some point. Heated ingredients are used to hydrate the carageenan (not just dissolve) and further cooled to use in the rest of the filling (think gelled butter). What I just described is an attempt to achieve close to perfect results, but carageenan does provide some thickening power when hydrated at lower temperatures. –  japoncem Jul 10 '13 at 19:11
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