Matching tastes is the same as matching colors. People like some combinations and not others, but this depends more on the person than on the combination. Two of the strongest reasons why people like a taste combination is:
The amount of "contrast"
- When the differences between two tastes are too small, the combination is not noticed or perceived as boring. Example: combining two different grape varieties. The food can be perceived as not seasoned enough.
- When the two tastes are very different, then you can be perceived as "clashing", as people like some extent of harmony and dislike it when two equally strong sensory inputs are trying to take hold of their attention. This does not mean that these combinations are always bad, but that a cook needs experience and talent to make such a daring match work, for the same reason that a random mix of piano and viola played at the same loudness is an unpleasant cacaphony, but a talented composer can combine them in a way which is very pleasant. Also, daring combinations of tastes tend to polarize people. Some love them, some hate them, depending on their personal tolerance for contrast.
- Between those, there is a goldilocks zone. Tastes which are similar, but not too similar, make a good combination with little effort. They are acceptable/non-offensive to practically everybody, and so become widespread. In food, this happens when a similar class of chemical compounds is found in two foods. Example: you can season fennel with tarragon.
People feel attracted to entities they are familiar with. This is just the way our brains are wired. So, traditional combinations are liked because they are eaten often, and they are eaten often because they are traditional. Note that this is not circular reasoning, but a positive feedback loop.
The interactions between the foods
Beside aroma, foods have other effects on our body, especially on our taste sensors. Other foods can make this effect stronger or weaker. For example, dairy makes capsaicin perception weaker (I don't know if this is a physical effect due to dilution or the fat coating the receptors, but it works), and alcohol makes it stronger (due to its direct effects on human gustatory cells, as I just read somewhere). So, foods interact. But does it mean that you should combine your chilli peppers with yoghurt or with alcohol? The better combination depends entirely on your subjective preference for stronger or milder burning.
So, what does that mean for your table of combinations? It means that an objective version of it cannot exist. Each person will assign different values to the combinations based on 1) how often they have encountered the combination before, 2) how much contrast they prefer in their food, 3) how well the specific recipe combined the two contrasting ingredients, and 4) whether they prefer certain flavors to be more pronounced or more subdued. Three of these factors depend on the eater, and one on the recipe designer, none is truly objective.
If you are shooting for a least common denominator, your best pointer is tradition. It specifies combinations for which all the four factors fall in a tolerable zone for most people. It is not completely fail-free, and it may not include some of the more interesting combinations out there, but at least it is a guideline. The other answer mentions The flavor bible as one of the best publicly available sources of such information, and I agree that it is a good place to start.
But you will never get the precision you want. The flavor bible lists suggested combinations for each food, with great combinations given in bold. This gives you three levels: does not fit (if combination not mentioned), fits, and fits very well. And even if you follow these three levels only, you will always have people who would wrinkle their nose at the suggested combinations and think them unrealistic, just because it is a thing they personally would not like to eat. The higher precision you try to create, the more you are creating some kind of order (orange with rosemary tastes better than pear with rosemary), and for each of these pairwise comparisons, there will be lots of people disagreeing with you.