Questions about what temperature is optimal for cooking/preparing certain food or how certain temperatures can affect different types of food. Questions can also include how to best achieve/maintain a certain temperature for a specific type of food.

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32
votes
3answers
1k views

Theoretical: why there's no gradient of doneness in bread?

I was always wondering, why there's no gradient of doneness visible on the cuts of bigger breads. For example: This one was made in the baking form, it has a thin visible crust, but after that the ...
31
votes
2answers
5k views

Why is 180 degrees C so common in recipes?

Is there any particular reason 180 degrees Celsius is so commonly called for in baking, roasting, deep frying?
27
votes
6answers
662k views

What temperatures should I keep my refrigerator and freezer set at?

For a refrigerator, if it's cooler, items like milk and meat last a bit longer. However if I set it close to freezing then some items start showing frost on them. What temperature should I set my ...
26
votes
9answers
25k views

How to rest meat but not let it get too cold?

Having read this question I am persuaded that resting meat is good for its flavour. But if the meat has a good temperature straight after it's been cooked, it seems as though it will be too cold after ...
22
votes
1answer
4k views

Why should a stock be simmered and not boiled?

Anthony Bourdain's Les Halles cookbook says that a stock should NEVER be boiled, why is this? Does the higher heat extract bitterness or something else undesirable? It seems a little strange because ...
20
votes
2answers
2k views

How does thermal shock affect pans made of different materials?

In another question, I had a little comment-discussion with TFD on the effect of shock cooling on pans. In a nutshell, I said that it is bad for the pan, and he said that especially if the pan is made ...
19
votes
2answers
9k views

Does Boiling Water, Instead of Warm Water, Hurt the Flavor of Tea/Hot Chocolate

I have a counter-top water kettle that I frequently use to boil water for tea, hot chocolate, and powdered drinks (e.g. chai). I don't think anything of it when the water starts boiling and keeps on ...
17
votes
3answers
6k views

How do you decide what temperature to bake at?

What is the logic behind the choice of temperature for baking? Obviously if you're following a recipe it will say what temperature to use, but I'd like to understand the reasoning behind it. Is it a ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

How hot does garlic need to get to lose its sharpness?

Inspired by the recent questions here, I made manicotti over the weekend. The recipe I used called for minced garlic in the filling. I love garlic and usually put in at least double recipe-prescribed ...
15
votes
1answer
3k views

(Why) do onions taste sweeter when cooked at lower temperature?

I use onions to add a sweeter taste to some dishes, for example in tomato sauce for pasta. I cook them in oil, with some salt, before adding the other ingredients. It seems to me that when I turn the ...
14
votes
3answers
3k views

Is there no use for high temperatures in ovens?

I'm about to buy a new oven. I can buy one which is able to steam the food, or one without. The one with steam (a nice, but not necessary feature) only goes to 230 °C / 446 °F, while a ...
13
votes
3answers
92k views

What does “bring to a simmer” mean?

First, a confession: I work in software, so I'm probably paying way too much attention to the state of liquid that is "a simmer". That written, I love to cook, and no recipe direction gives me more ...
13
votes
2answers
285k views

To which internal temperature should I cook beef for rare/medium/well done?

I am going to cook a beef roast: To which internal temperature should I cook it for rare/medium/well done?
13
votes
3answers
5k views

What do I need to know about temperature and food safety?

What general rules do I need to follow to keep my food safe? How do I know what temperature to cook something to, or whether my food is safe at room temperature?
12
votes
6answers
58k views

Time vs. Temperature - What changes what?

Really basic question that's bugging me... Speaking mathematically, 200 degrees of heat for 10 minutes should be the same as 400 degrees of heat for 5 minutes , but that's not the case, right? So ...
12
votes
2answers
809 views

What are some techniques to cool down a dish so that we can store it in the refrigerator safely?

My wife just cooked some 'plof' (an Ashkenazi Jewish recipe). A one pot chicken, rice, onion, carrots dish. All those are in their respective layers. She just finished cooking it. We're going to go ...
12
votes
3answers
3k views

Cooking on the stove: what is “too hot” for a pan?

I'm a novice cook and often hear about "learning one's stove". Obviously manufacturers, cooking methods, and appliance types vary and so "high" on one stove isn't comparable to another. That said, ...
12
votes
4answers
26k views

How long should roast pork be cooked so that it stays light pink?

Often pork is much too dry when served, I would like to have it slightly 'rosé' pink. So I am looking for some cooking instructions for cooking a roast pork in the oven. A time/temperature table ...
12
votes
4answers
32k views

How long should I cook pork for (at 100° C)?

I have a pork shoulder in the over right now at 100° C (212° F). I was planning on roasting it for 7 hours, will this be long enough to cook it safely? I saw the FDA chart about minimum internal ...
11
votes
4answers
8k views

Why does my steak turn out well done when the temperature probe says it's only rare?

Is it because I used a poor cut of meat? Did I not cook it fast enough? Should I have removed it from the heat sooner? Is my cut too thick? Is my temperature probe too conservative?
10
votes
2answers
7k views

How much warm is warm water?

I'm following a recipe for making dough for a challah recipe, and the recipe calls for warm water. How warm should the water be (in degrees)? Do I need to heat it, or is room-temperature good enough? ...
10
votes
2answers
7k views

What temperature does the Maillard reaction occur?

There seems to be a lot of disagreement about the temperatures and conditions under which the Maillard reaction can occur. Cooking professionals reference all sorts of "minimum temperatures" -- I've ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Cooking Temperature for Crocodile meat?

Does anybody have any experience cooking crocodile meat sous-vide? We found some crocodile meat at our local butcher, and bought some on a whim. Judging by appearances, it looked quite a lot like ...
9
votes
4answers
11k views

What is the correct internal temperature for rabbit meat?

I have never cooked rabbit before, and my charts don't include rabbit. Are there food safety considerations speaking for thorough heating, as with chicken, or is it acceptable to cook it medium rare? ...
9
votes
1answer
4k views

Is it normal for the Chickpeas to develop white froth after being soaked for 12 hours?

Yesterday at 08:00 I had soaked white Chickpeas in water and left the container in the kitchen. Daytime temperature here is 44C. At 20:00 the same day I saw the container covered by white froth. Is ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Ideal fridge temperature accounting for temperature spikes

I've read the question on the ideal fridge temperature, but am asking a more involved question about a baseline temperature and temperature spikes. How will a few hours each day at 10 C effect the ...
8
votes
4answers
8k views

What is “hand hot”?

How hot is "hand hot"? Should it be about the temperature where you can stand leaving your hand in the water ... but any degree hotter and it wouldn't be tolerable? Or is that way too hot? For ...
8
votes
6answers
7k views

What's the best way to defrost ice-cream/sorbet quickly?

I made some sorbet at the weekend, and realised just when we were due to serve that I had forgot to take it out of the freezer to soften, and so it was rock hard. What is the best way to bring it to ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Why should dried mushrooms be soaked in warm water?

I was looking at some recipes online that included dried mushrooms (mostly porcini). All those recipes and this question mention soaking them in warm water. Why warm water? Would there be a ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the ideal coffee temperature for tiramisu?

When making tiramisu, I usually make a fresh batch of strong coffee. I just don't know how long to wait to use the coffee (for dipping the cookies). In my opinion, room temperature coffee tastes ...
8
votes
1answer
429 views

Do sweet dishes taste sweeter when hot or when it gets cold?

While cooking something sweet which would be served cold or at room-temperature, is it more sweet when it is hot i.e. during the cooking when you taste in order to check the sweetness, or when it is ...
8
votes
3answers
4k views

How do I accurately take a chicken thigh's temprature?

I tried to bake chicken thighs the other day and I used my Probe Thermometer to tell me when they were done. Well it seems that I did something wrong when inserting the thermometer because the thighs ...
7
votes
6answers
3k views

Baking chicken - temperature vs time

I'd like to bake a chicken. Let's say it's already washed, marinated, sitting on tray and ready to bake. I usually do it at 180 degrees C, for 1 hour. My main problem is that the skin is not crunchy ...
7
votes
8answers
24k views

What can you do with an infrared thermometer?

Infrared thermometers have plummeted in price in recent years, and are now inexpensive gadgets for the home cook, not to mention the pros. What do you use them for? What have you learned about cooking ...
7
votes
4answers
32k views

Cooking slow-roasted pork to 190F?

I got a recipe from America's Test Kitchen for "slow-roasted pork" using a bone-in pork shoulder. They say to cook it at 325F until it's 190F internal temperature. However: you normally need to cook ...
7
votes
9answers
61k views

How can I keep hot food hot when transporting it?

How can I keep hot food hot when transporting it, e.g. to a friend's house or a potluck? I usually just give up and take cold food, but I'd like to have more options.
7
votes
1answer
246 views

What happens with bread at >= 94˚C/201˚F? Or: Is temperature a reliable indicator of doneness?

So I baked a rye bread last night (in a bread pan). It was a new recipe for me and I had to adjust some things in it due to missing ingredients, so I could not fully rely on the time and temperature ...
7
votes
3answers
3k views

Cook Time vs. Cook Temp trade off

So I've always thought of cooking this way: Higher Temp & Less Cook time = crispier vs. Lower Temp & More Cook time = softer Now obviously this doesn't apply to everything, but generally. ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

When is Slow Cooking done - time vs temperature of meat

I have read that slow cookers manufactured recently (not sure what time period that actually means) rise to their cooking temperature faster because of FDA concerns of keeping a food at a dangerous ...
7
votes
2answers
320 views

Is a “typical” jam sweeter today than the typical jams of centuries ago?

I have a new early morning snack this week - toast and jam, but after putting the (fridge temp) jam on the toast, I put the whole plate of toast and jam in the microwave for 20 seconds to warm the ...
7
votes
2answers
231 views

Smell Something Burning. Course of action?

What do I do when I smell something burning in my pot of mutton in gravy? Stirring is the best way to prevent this but what if some charring has already taken place? Wouldn't it be better not to stir ...
7
votes
1answer
189 views

How does baking temperature affect kale chips?

My ideal for kale chips would be to have the kale remain as green as possible, be crispy, but not have a burnt flavor. In kale chip recipes around the internet, the cooking temperature varies ...
7
votes
1answer
169 views

Temperature-stable spices

I would find it very useful to have a list of empirical data on temperature-stability of spices. Are there any systematical studies available? Which spices can easily bear long durations of ...
6
votes
3answers
5k views

How to measure the temperature of a pan?

When I need to know if a pan is above or below 100 Celsius but don't have a thermometer handy, I squirt some water on it. Say I want to check for another temperature, e.g. for the Maillard reaction or ...
6
votes
2answers
18k views

Difference in cookie texture if we use melted vs softened butter

I would like to know the difference in the final result if we use softened butter or melted butter in an ordinary cookie recipe. A few days ago i baked chocolate chips cookies i waited for the ...
6
votes
1answer
7k views

Frozen pizza - Understanding time and temperature equivalency

When cooking a frozen pizza in a conventional oven, I have two similar personal pizzas: one box's instructions say to cook at 425°F for 19 minutes, and the instructions on the other pizza box says ...
6
votes
2answers
225 views

Confirming Fried Chicken is completely cooked

I'm currently involved in a food startup and we're refining our process for product quality. We fry Bone-In breasts, Dark quarters, Wings and Boneless breasts. The challenge I'm currently facing is ...
6
votes
2answers
866 views

Is leaving eggs out of the fridge, prior to cooking them a direct cause as to how shell break?

I have friend who went to culinary school who claims that cold eggs crack cleaner than eggs at room temperature. Do egg shells crack cleaner coming cold out of the fridge? Does warming up to room ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

What temperature are dark beers (stouts and nut browns) supposed to be consumed at?

I remember reading somewhere that certain beers are supposed to be drunk much closer to room temperature than most people drink them for optimal flavor. Specifically stout beers and nut brown ales ...
6
votes
1answer
17k views

Why are my (italian Whole foods) sausages still pink inside?

I bought some italian pork and garlic sausages from Whole foods. I cooked them on a low heat, they were in the pan for probably an hour but the middle remained slightly pink. To be precise, by ...