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9

Not in the same sense as in bread, no. First, in bread, there is one main ratio: liquid to flour. You can conveniently express any "additions" such as fat etc. as a percentage of the flour too, but they are additions, as in principle, you can make bread with water+flour only. The effects of these ingredients exhibit much less interaction than cookie ...


6

A sausage stuffer, perhaps? Your standard food mill attachment type more typically seen in a home kitchen: Unless you're seeing some product I've never met, I would not call that stuff "rolled in tubes" - I'd call it a tube (or log) of dough, and I expect the filling process is VERY like a (large, automated) sausage stuffer, and involves no rolling at ...


3

Either way is acceptable these days, but the classic version declines any browning. It's really a matter of personal taste. The classic Scottish recipe calls for shortbread to be set but pale. However, many people prefer a bit of light browning, as this tends to emphasize the taste of the salt, which in turn enhances the taste of the butter.


3

No, it will not. Butter which has melted once will never again be the same after it resolidifies, so recipes assume you use butter which has never been melted. Also, when you try to warm up cold butter or also cool down warm butter quickly, the result seldom do well in baking, you get some weird behaviors like butter which smears instead of creaming well. ...


3

I'm not so lucky as to be able to get whole raw milk… Wait, then there's a flaw in your premise. Check the label. Any milk treated using high-heat processes like UHT, pasteurization or ultra-pasteurized milk doesn't sour like it used to in your grandmother's days; it spoils… goes rotten. Spoiled milk is not the same as soured milk. The ...


3

It's not a specific date, as there are just too many variables -- what temperature it's been stored at, and how many days since the seal has been broken are likely more significant. Growing up, my mom would use it for pancakes and baking once it started to smell a little bit off, but would dispose of it when it started to curdle (separate & get chunky). ...


3

A mix of clarified and ordinary unsalted butter works well. I used clarified butter that was simmered for a long time to be sure the water was thoroughly removed, just to the point where it stops sputtering, and the solids in the bottom begin to brown. If the unsalted butter has a fat content of 80% and clarified near 100%, then a 20% clarified to 80% ...


2

I haven't tried this, but it could work... Since the difference between European butter and American butter is fat content, maybe you could do a combination of butter and shortening. American butter is normally 80% fat (or more). European butter is normally 85% fat (or more). Shortening is 100% fat (it doesn't contain water). I wouldn't use all shortening ...


2

It really seems to be dependent on the consistency of the dough. Some cookie doughs won't hold shape, as they contain lots of butter and very little flour - chocolate chip cookies are a good example. The upside is that you won't need to shape them into round slices before you bake them, because once in the oven, they'll melt into one big more-or-less round ...


2

I'll bet the rent that they weren't baked completely dry. Moisture made it to the crust overnight as happens with crunchy bread crust going leathery.


1

Yeast donuts thaw beautifully (frozen while very fresh) but if you are amateur, scones are breakfasty and very thaw-friendly. A little powder sugar pattern will have everyone believing you just took off the apron that morning


1

I make Mark Bittman's no-knead bread. It is baked in a cast iron Dutch oven for the first 20 minutes of baking. Then, you uncover it for the last few minutes. This makes an excellent crust with tender, chewy bread inside. The other thing that makes a big difference with the crust is cooling the bread completely before slicing. It's hard to wait, but it's ...


1

You need steam. For the first 10 to 15 minutes of the bake put a tray of water (about a cup full) in the bottom of the oven. Alternatively cover the loaf with some form of loose dome to trap in the moisture from the bread, again only 10 to 15 minutes then uncover. Leave the steam for too long and the crust will get leathery.


1

Most of the aromatic compounds contained in vanilla are highly volatile and / or degrade in high heat, so I would add the vanilla after caramelization.


1

Every substitution is probably going to require other alterations. Baking soda's effects extend beyond leavening: it generally reacts with acidic ingredients (making the batter less sour) and also provides sodium ions which can affect flavor. If the substitute doesn't react with acid as strongly, you may need to decrease acid ingredients or substitute ...


1

I don't know how fast water will evaporate from butter, but leaving slices of your butter exposed to (dry) air for half a day could be a low-effort way of reducing water content? The butter would discolour slightly, but there shouldn't be noticeable off-flavours that would affect the dough. (I've successfully used a fan over egg-whites to rapidly reduce ...


1

I think I have similar gas oven as you have.What I do is bake for some time from bottom till I see slight brownish bottom of bread/ bun then I switch to top gas burners( broiler) and bake. This is risky as the bun becomes brown very fast. Problem is the browning is not even and get some dark patches here and there. I will try keeping the bottom tray with ...



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