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13

What happens to bread when it is done Yes, there is something particular what happens at a temperature in the mid-90s. Not all details of it are proven, but the major outline is, and the hypotheses about the details are solid enough to make it into textbooks. Starch is contained in tiny granules, a few micrometers in diameter. When heated in the ...


11

Absolutely not. There are a lot of tricks to get good thick (or thin) pizza with oven temperatures under 300C (572F). The people at Serious Eats have researched the problem at great length and with excellent results. Few home ovens reach 300C. I made this pizza last weekend using the recipe in the above link, my oven's top temperature is 274C (525F): ...


10

Plain pencil is what is normally used. The trick is that you draw on the reverse side of the parchment, and then flip it over so the food is on the non-written on side.


10

I don't know much of the science behind the super-soft bread on supermarket shelves, but I can give some insight into the history that led to it becoming so ubiquitous in the US. The idea that whiter breads are classier than darker breads goes all the way back to the 5th century BC. The belief that white bread was superior to dark bread, a common theme ...


9

Fresh ground coffee requires some sort of brewing process to extract the flavor, generally extended time in hot water. If you just dump some into a cup of warm water, you won't get much out of it - some wet grounds and some slightly coffee-ish water. Same goes for baked goods: coffee grounds won't efficiently release their flavor. If you brew it first, ...


9

Same reason that recipes call for cocoa powder and not a cup of hot chocolate - it doesn't contain any water, and it's easy to control quantities. If you used brewed coffee then the recipe would have to be adjusted for water content - assuming that's even possible and you're not adding the instant coffee to other dry ingredients. There may not even be ...


9

You could replace the applesauce with the fat that it was originally replacing.


9

The only thing that is even remotely possible in my mind is to use it akin to buttermilk or sour cream (which are intentionally fermented products) in baking. However, since the culture that fermented the milk was uncontrolled, I would not do so. I recommend discarding.


9

There are plenty of uses for less than ideal cookies. Here are a few off the top of my head: Crumble on top of yogurt, ice cream or other deserts Crumble up and pack it down as a pie crust (although, chocolate chips might make this one messy) Break up, and use in a bread pudding (but you have to let it soak for a while, and do not sweeten the custard, as ...


8

I have seen this happening more than once. While I don't know the whole theory behind it, each time it happened, there was something just below the hole, let's call it "the lump". What I think happens is that the lump is too heavy. When the batter below it tries to rise, it doesn't have the strength to push up the lump. This could be combined with ...


8

Soured milk stays good for a long time (similarly to cheeses) - pretty much until mold starts forming. It is a common drink in Eastern Europe, and production is very simple - essentially "happens by itself": if you leave fresh, non-boiled, non-pasteurized milk in room temperature for a couple days, it turns into soured milk. It's used as ingredient for a few ...


8

What to do A dough should be generally risen by size anyway, not by time. But it is also very forgiving, so it will probably still give you decent edible bread if you do it by time. The best way is to wait until it has doubled, no matter what the clock shows. But you insist on going by the clock, don't change the time, wait the 30 minutes. It may be ...


8

Folding is almost always done when you have one ingredient like whipped cream, egg whites, meringue, or similar which has had a lot of air whipped into it, and you are incorporating that with another ingredient. The folding motion is meant to disturb the whipped ingredient is little as possible, in order to retain the whipped in air, and thus the volume of ...


7

Milk or milk powder are not strictly needed in bread recipes. There are many formulas that omit it: the minimal ingredients for a loaf are water, flour and yeast; salt is probably essential for a loaf that is tasty. Milk (or milk powder) is a way of enhancing the dough to: Make a softer loaf (due to the milkfat acting as a tenderizer by interfering with ...


7

According to the Mayo Clinic, hazelnuts are somewhat more fatty than almonds, per ounce by weight (the range is for whether they are roasted or not): Almonds - 14 - 15 g Hazelnuts - 17 - 17.7 g As might be expected, hazelnuts are slightly lower in starch. These is unlikely to make any practical difference in the recipe, as both are fairly close. ...


7

It could be achieved with almost any leavening, but I suspect it's baking soda or baking powder, and not yeast. You'd just need to package it before the reaction is completed, and let it finish in the container. This would create additional gas, which would pressurize the can. As for why it doesn't continue to rise, it's because they can control how much ...


7

Lactic acid bacteria reproduce more rapidly in a wet culture and acetic acid bacteria produce more rapidly in a dry culture, so the hydration will change the flavor of your bread by controlling which organisms it is most favorable to. Beyond that, wet starters usually rise faster and dry starters rise slower, so people often use dryer cultures if they know ...


7

Silpats and Exopats have a glass fibers (regionally called fiberglass or glass wool, but not candy floss) embedded in them for strength. The warning not to use them when scratched is because fiber glass does nothing good for a person when ingested, and a scratch may expose it. Some types of silicone based cookware do not have the fiberglass reinforcement, ...


7

In case you are interested, the magic comes at least partly from the milk. I accidentally forgot to add it (but other than that, I followed the recipe to the letter), and I ended up with a regular vanilla cake, no layers at all. I imagine this cake part should've been the (partly) the upper layer. As milk is heavier than some of the other ingredients, it ...


7

Thin pizzas are traditionally baked in extremely hot ovens for short times, thick pizzas need lower temperatures for much longer times. Keep in mind that oven temperature is only one factor, as important if not more so is the quality of the ingredients and the techniques used in preparing them. A good base, good tomato sauce, and good toppings will make a ...


7

They are probably unsalvageable, sorry. There are two possibilities for the bad taste. If you didn't have much fat in the dough, then what you are getting is probably an alkali taste. It is bland and subtly bitter. Alkali (basic) stuff can be neutralized with acid. But for the neutralization you need to mix your alkalic stuff with acid in a liquid ...


7

According to David Lebovitz: Because natural cocoa powder hasn’t had its acidity tempered, it’s generally paired with baking soda (which is alkali) in recipes. Dutch-process cocoa is frequently used in recipes with baking powder, as it doesn’t react to baking soda like natural cocoa does. So, if you're using non-Dutched (natural) cocoa, you can use ...


6

Cocoa butter has an exceptionally high melting point for a vegan lipid. For most baking applications, it probably not ideal; you would be better served with a liquid oil, or if you need something solid but malleable, a hydrogenated vegetable oil product like a vegan margarine. The main culinary use (in general) is thinning chocolate in creating chocolate ...


6

To prevent the sticking, you might want to use a spray oil, maybe even just on the foil before you put the vegetables and potatoes on. It's a tiny amount of oil, not enough to make things noticeably greasy, but will be pretty effective. Another spray over the top will make them brown a little more nicely and may even prevent a little drying out. ...


6

The author of this recipe probably happens to keep in his pantry (or more professionally speaking, dry store) just those two types of flour, and so has specified a mix to get a mid-level flour with moderate protein levels, tailored to his preferences. Given that the author is Jacques Torres, this is almost certainly a scaled down translation of a ...


6

I don't remember what the Lembas are supposed to be like in the original text, but whatever Tolkien intended them to be, the recipe is not for a bread-like item in the sense modern US Americans understand it. It is more comparable to waffles. This is why it got wrong when you tried to treat it like bread. It is a batter, not a dough. The slow indirect heat ...


6

you need to let them cool completely on a wire rack before moving them to a plate or sealed container. This will prevent the starch on the bottoms from steaming onto the plate.


6

Yes, cranberries freeze extremely well. Since you will be macerating them with sugar, and since the texture of fresh cranberries is not that pleasant anyway, any slight softening from the freezing should not be a detriment--it might even be an improvement.


6

Generally when you have issues regarding oven spring at home, the problem is heat and steam in your oven rather than yeast activity. In commercial bakeries, sourdoughs are frequently fermented for overnight or longer, so that shouldn't be a problem. A lot of the expansion you see in the oven is from the moisture in your dough converting to steam before the ...


6

Use the butter; historically margarine is a simulated butter in the first place, and you will probably get a better product, since butter tastes much better. You could use the shortening, but it will not help the flavor at all, and doesn't have the approximately 18% water that butter and margarine do, although this usually doesn't matter in a graham cracker ...



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