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17

Ingredient substitution lists say you can use an equal volume of lemon juice or vinegar if you don't have cream of tartar. Most likely, the assumption has been that a baker will be more likely to have cream of tartar on hand than other acid sources due to the fact that it has multiple uses in the kitchen: Leavening Stabilization of egg whites Prevent ...


15

Summary for the Quick Reader Only the shape and size of the grains really makes a difference. Otherwise, salt is salt. What makes a difference between salts? There are only two real differentiators between different types of salt (assuming the product is essentially just salt, and not a seasoning blend): The mineral or other impurities resulting from ...


14

I am answering this question, but I am not going to accept this answer, at least not without further research and/or experimentation and editing this answer to reflect that. I am hoping that somebody with a greater knowledge of chemistry and the nature of brining can add to or even credibly contradict the science of what I am saying here. My conclusions are ...


13

What happens to bread when it is done Yes, there is something particular what happens at a temperature in the mid-90s. Not all details of it are proven, but the major outline is, and the hypotheses about the details are solid enough to make it into textbooks. Starch is contained in tiny granules, a few micrometers in diameter. When heated in the ...


11

From UC Davis: (http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7231.pdf) "Question: Why did my garlic turn blue? Answer: Garlic contains anthocyanins, water-soluble pigments that can turn blue or purple under acidic conditions. This is a variable phenomenon that is more pronounced for immature garlic but can differ among cloves within a single head of garlic. If you ...


10

This seems to be a myth based on the idea that wine can be 'bruised' by popping the cork or handling the bottle roughly. 'Dr Vinny', Wine Spectator Magazine's advice expert, has this to say on the subject: Someone asked whether or not making a cork "pop" when you pull it will bruise the wine. Others have also asked about bruising in relation to ...


9

Actually it is neither filler nor binder, but moisture retainer. Breadcrumbs in your ground meat will absorb much of the natural juices during cooking and then will release that moisture back into the meat as it rests resulting in a 'juicier' burger, meatball or meatloaf.


9

Why Alcohol? Alcohol is used for extracts because the flavor compounds (plant oils) you are trying to extract do not easily dissolve in water. Alcohol (typically bourbon or vodka) will do the trick. Make sure you use +80 proof because it also acts as a preservative. Making Mint Extract To make an extract, tear up or coarsely chop and bruise washed mint ...


9

It could be eugenol that causes the numbing sensation you experience. Eugenol is common to cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, basil and bay leaf and is used in anesthetics & analgesics, among other things.


8

Breads get their structure from glutens--a type of starch molecule formed by the combination of glutenin with gliaten. Kneading and resting the dough helps the formation of glutens--I assume by shifting glutenin and gliatin molecules around, this increases the odds of bindings occurring. Oils can bind to glutenin and gliatin and inhibit these reactions, so ...


8

This is not yogurt per definition, you are making a fresh cheese. You can actually use other types of milk for such a cheese, but the mouthfeel and taste will be very different and won't be as similar to yogurt. There is a large class of acid-curdled cheeses, including paneer, tvorog, quark and many others. I don't know if yours has a specific name. I know ...


8

According to the USDA: If packaging is accidentally cooked in a conventional oven, is the food safe to eat? Plastic packaging materials should not be used at all in conventional ovens. They may catch on fire or melt, causing chemical migration into foods. Sometimes these materials are inadvertently cooked with a product. For example, giblets ...


7

Soy milk is bitter. Enzymes in the beans (lipoxygenase) combine with fats in the presence of water to produce what is usually described as a "beany flavor"; bitter and grassy. The solution to this problem, although not done in many traditional soy milk preparations, is to cook the soy milk long enough to destroy the enzyme. Many, but not all, soy milk ...


7

Lactic acid bacteria reproduce more rapidly in a wet culture and acetic acid bacteria produce more rapidly in a dry culture, so the hydration will change the flavor of your bread by controlling which organisms it is most favorable to. Beyond that, wet starters usually rise faster and dry starters rise slower, so people often use dryer cultures if they know ...


6

I was unable to find information that might tell what happened to your dish, but found some extremely interesting and detailed sources of information on collagen and gelatin which I think are worth sharing. I did find that the pH is unlikely to be the major contributing factor, as there are both acid and alkaline processes for gelatin formation--see the ...


6

This is actually a great chemistry question! First off, you need the density and molecular weight of the acetic acid (1.039 g/mL, 60.05 g/mol) and alcohol (which is ethanol — 0.709 g/mL, 46.07 g/mol). Assuming 100% conversion of ethanol (y) to acetic acid (x), you will end up with the same number of moles of acetic acid as the amount of ethanol you started ...


6

Microbes need available water to grow, and sugar reduces the availability of water to them. In addition, spread as a thin layer on cake, water evaporates (further reducing water availability). You can find out more about factors influencing microbial growth in the FDA's Bad Bug Book. As the book notes, generally, you can only know from experiment if a ...


5

There is no single "molasses molecule". It's a complex flavor from a complex combination of chemicals. There is no "caramel molecule" either. It also contains several different types of sugar (mono- and disaccharides), which impart their own flavor and calories. It will include residual sugars, all the types of molecules produced during caramelization, ...


5

There's a bit of trickery going on in the comparison of vinegar (acetic acid) to spirits of salt (hydrochloric acid). Your 5% (0.83 molar) vinegar has a pH of about 2.5. You need much less of the stronger acid, HCl, to reach that same pH (2.5); in fact only 0.003 molar, a factor of 277 less. Since you taste the anion (acetate or chloride), not the proton ...


5

A gel is any liquid (usually) or gaseous medium suspended in a solid three-dimensional mesh which entraps the medium so that it does not flow. By way of (somewhat flawed analogy) think of a giant role of bubble wrap. Its mostly air. But the plastic keeps the air from flowing at a large scale. Gels can range from very soft to very hard. New modern ...


5

Gelatin is pH sensitive. Acidic ingredients can make gelatin become cloudy. Stock is naturally rich in gelatin, so a similar reaction is probably happening in your stock. Acids cause many proteins to coagulate, in some cheeses for instance, so the acid is probably causing the suspended proteins and gelatin in your stock, which are normally not visible, to ...


4

Yes, many oils or lipids are dissolved in alcohol, whereas they cannot dissolve in water. This is why, for example, vanilla extract is based on alcohol. That would depend on the ratio of leaves to vodka, and how long you steeped. Probably no where near what commercial extracts are. It would be unlikely to be drinkable straight, since the flavor would ...


4

Many manufacturers and manuals say that you shouldn't grease them. However, for parts of the process you may be able to use Taylor ice cream machine lubrication or Vaseline (see below). Dave Arnold who also runs the Cooking Issues blog, is the king of RotoVap in the kitchen. There is a full article over here on Dispensery Grade where he discusses RotoVap ...


4

If capsaicin is soluble in alcohol, and you want a sauce with heat but no taste, there's a very simple way to do it if you do get a hold of pure capsaicin. Keep in mind that pepper sprays used for personal protection or law enforcement are in the range of 10% to 30% capsaicin. Bear spray (commonly seen here in Alaska) is required by law to be at or under 2% ...


4

Note: This answer goes in a bit more detail than necessary to answer the question. If you truly only care about the hydration, please only read "Water/flour ratio" and "Flavor of the bread". I have added the other information as well since the effects are similar to that of a change in hydration. I've frequently baked (about once to twice a week) with ...


4

The pot will have more caffeine. You are right that the concentration of the final solution is determined not only by steeping time, temperature, etc., but also by the amount of water available to dilute the stuff coming out of the tea, including caffeine. It will reach balance earlier with less water. So more water will get more of the different compounds ...


4

Those look like air pockets - you're using an unusual whisk, perhaps it can't get enough "bite" on the stainless steel bowl to pop them, whereas the plastic bowl's texture offers enough resistance. I'd try it with a balloon whisk rather than a spiral whisk, and see if that helps. Here's a breakdown on whisks and their uses from Craftsy.


4

Citric acid and sodium hexametaphosphate are often used in processed cheese as emulsifier. These kinds of salts improve the protein's swelling capacity and emulsification and thus inhibits the leakage of water or fat from the product (forms metal complexes). Some salts are also acid buffers. 1 In this wikipedia article (in German, but chemical names are ...


4

Your question has two main parts, what's elastic about gluten, and why don't other plants have this unicorn we call a gluten protein. I'll provide some background info first, but feel free to skip ahead to the spoilers if you like. Quick and dirty background on proteins... All proteins (like gluten) are made of differing sequences, and number of about 20 ...


3

There's a really nice write-up on this topic on Black Bear Coffee's website (which Aaronut linked above). Though it's not mentioned in your question, oxygen is actually the first culprit in loss of freshness: Separation from oxygen has been the primary strategy, with good reason. Oxidation obviously contributes significantly to flavor degradation ...



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