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1

Most commercial chocolate does not have a shelf life. Batches are dated for processing and tracking purposes but there is really no inherent limit to how long it will remain shelf stable assuming it remains below about 30C / 85F and in a correctly controlled environment. Chocolates that contain preservatives typically do so because they contain ...


0

This work very well for most foods. Grease a 1 to 2 inch ring around the top inside lip of the pot with either oleo, butter, crisco etc. I always use this when cooking rice, oatmeal, grits, potatoes etc. This causes the bubbles or liquid to fold back into the pot. However nothing will work unless you reduce the heat to the correct level. Any thing above ...


6

The thickening in Bearnaise, as in mayonnaise, is not so much in the ingredients as in the technique. These sauces get their thickness by being emulsified. An emulsion is formed by rapidly mixing, whisking or blending two ingredients that shouldn't mix (oil and liquid). The emulsifier (egg yolk and often mustard in the case of mayo) stabilizes the emulsion ...


2

When a liquid is boiling, putting more heat energy into it doesn't make it get hotter: it just makes it boil (i.e., turn to a gas) faster. Putting the lid on means that heat leaves the pan more slowly, which has the same effect of putting heat in more quickly: it makes the pan boil faster. The fastest way to get the water boiling is on high heat with the ...


2

Other answers have suggested taking off the lid when your pot boils, lowering the temperature, stirring, the wooden spoon trick, and adding fat (oil). These are all helpful suggestions, but one special case comes to mind that's worth mentioning. That case would be cooking rice in an inexpensive rice cooker, of the type that's vented through the lid and has ...


7

Besides temperature adjustments or stirring, in the case of boiling starches in water (pasta, potatoes, etc.), you can add a little bit of oil to mess with the formation of the bubbles. This won't help if you've got a rolling boil, but will give you a better safety margin when you're closer to a simmer. Place any wooden-handled utensil into or across the ...


17

You are doing precisely the opposite of 'normal' procedure, which is to put the lid on the pan until the water starts boiling, then remove the lid (either partially or completely) to prevent boiling over. A reduction in the hob temperature will also probably be necessary, and is in any case desirable - mercilessly boiling any vegetable is rarely a good ...


3

Your assumption that there is nothing living inside the package is incorrect. Food irradiation does not sterilise the food. It is very, but not totally effective. Therefore, given enough time, the meat will still spoil. Irradiation does effect the quality of the food, so I imagine a balance needs to be struck between safety and quality.


4

Miracle thaws, also known as defrosting trays, are simply chunks of metal with a high coefficient of heat transfer. Materials that have a high thermal conductivity transfer heat more efficiently than those with a low conductivity. Aluminum is cheap and has a high thermal conductivity relative to other materials, so most are made of that material. However, ...


24

reference: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/conductive-heat-transfer-d_428.html Let's take a moment to look at the heat transfer equation. Looking at it, we can see the ways to get more efficient heat transfer q / A = k dT / s q / A = heat transfer per unit area (W/m2) k = thermal conductivity (W/mK) dT = temperature difference (oC) s = wall thickness ...


0

I've been making a lot of room temp gelatins lately; not gummybears, something else with a bit lower gelatin concentration. The secret ingredient seems to be time. The first day, things are pretty jiggly, but even when hermetically sealed, things get tougher and tougher over a course of about three to four days. I expect it's some colloid maturation process ...


0

The "secret" component of commercial gummies is gelatin and if we take a look here especially the Production section where it says commercial gelatin is comprised of animal products such as animal bones, bovine hides, and pig skin. And from our knowledge of basic chemistry we know that bones, skin, and hides don't readily melt in room temperature or when ...



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