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36

Most of the weight in fresh fruit is water, which has no calories. When you dry the fruit, the remainder is concentrated, so there are more calories in a given volume or weight. Sulfur dioxide is a preservative with anti-microbial properties. The claim of 3.6 times the energy is specious.


25

There's an old children's story about making Stone Soup. In it, a penniless begger offers to teach people how to make his favorite recipe: soup, made from a stone! He boils some water and drops a stone in, and while it's "cooking", keeps mentioning offhand things like "It'd go great with some carrots" or "Celery would be lovely in this". The townspeople rush ...


22

Chick peas/Garbanzo beans, lentils, and other legumes (black beans, Great Northern beans), and nuts (nuts are a bit pricier). Cheap and vegan/vegetarian friendly!


19

The big difference between a healthy meat-eater's diet and a healthy vegetarian's diet is simply where the protein comes from. The proteins our bodies use are made up of 22 amino acids, 8 of which we cannot make in our bodies but need to get from outside sources. Different food groups have strengths in different ones of those 8 amino acids. To make a ...


16

If you are interested in the theory, the answer is yes, there is a change. If you are interested in dieting, the answer is still yes, but it is quite irrelevant to you. There are two types of browning reactions, Maillard and caramelization. Both start with highly complicated molecules and end with different kinds of highly complicated molecules. For a very ...


15

Anything that breaks down due to heat is going to break down no matter HOW you cook it. Boiling only "destroys" nutrients by leaching them away into the water, which is the same reason that other people say that steaming/microwaving is better. Thiamine, for example, is highly water soluble, so boiling is out. But it also breaks down at 100C, so you can't ...


15

It isn't really "absorbed" by the boiling water; more precisely, it is leached into the water. As kiamlaluno said, Vitamin C is water soluble. An important thing to note is that the leaching of vitamin C into water, by itself, doesn't destroy the vitamin C. It's still there; it's just in the water rather than the vegetable. If you consume the liquid you ...


14

The simple answer is no, you cannot convert monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fats into saturated fats through cooking alone. Before I can even begin to answer in detail, I have to start by pointing out that "saturated" and "unsaturated" fat is already an oversimplification. These are very rough classifications of fats and the chemical reality is far more ...


14

The boiling point of most cooking oils is much higher than their smoke points. The boiling point of olive oil, for example, is around 300°C (572°F), which is hotter than the temperature of a pan on a typical residential range/cooktop. With that said, alcohols and esters which make up the flavor and fragrance of the oil will have lower boiling points and ...


14

This phenomenon affects fruits much worse than vegetables actually. The FDA published a report that cut or peeled fruits will lose half their vitamin C content in 1-2 weeks. Over 10-25% of this loss will occur in fruits in only 5 days. For vegetables there exists a similar, albeit less pronounced effect. When cut the flesh inside of the vegetable is exposed ...


13

Your question implies that cholesterol only comes from animal products. This is not correct. Cholesterol is present in many plants. Other answers and comments claim that only amounts "less than 0.5" (units omitted) of cholesterol is permitted to be listed as 0, and that "no cholesterol" is an added claim that a product is truly cholesterol free. This too ...


13

I noticed you didn't mention beans, which are fairly common in minestrone. Cannellini beans are most typical, but you could experiment with others (garbanzo, fava beans, etc.)


12

If you use every bit of a whole chicken it becomes a significant value. The meat can be eaten as a main, but stretched even more by being shredded and used in dishes such as chicken pot pie, enchiladas, quesadillas, and so many other dishes that use some chicken mixed in with vegetables. Once the meat is off the bone the bones should be used to make stock. ...


12

Sounds like you want Nutraloaf. If you search google you will undoubtedly find recipes for this abomination. It is designed to meet nutritional needs while minimizing the need for utensils. You did say taste and texture weren't important.


12

Both contain protein. The amount varies by the type for cheese, although it appears to be about 20% - 35%. All dairy contains protein. There may also be milk or cream in the sauce, which would also be a contributing ingredient. Pasta also contains protein, but less than cheese. The amount depends on the type of flour used. It will also increase if egg is ...


12

The version of the story that many Americans know comes from the book Stone Soup, in which three weary soldiers enter a village and convince the suspicious villagers to share their supplies by showing them how to make soup from stones. A big pot, some water, and three smooth stones is all you need for the soup, but it's much better if you add vegetables, ...


12

Can't comment on the nutritional side of things, but the main reason I can think of for not always including it is that it has a slightly different flavour. A much more intense lemon flavour is provided by the zest while the juice has the more tart elements (and of course water). If you're just interested in avoiding waste, you can freeze the zest.


11

Don't neglect beans and lentils. Other than soy and hemp, lentils are among the most concentrated plant-based protein source. Fava beans, black beans, and chick peas (garbonzo beans) are also good.


11

The US Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 101.4) states that ingredients must be listed in descending order of predominance based on weight. The following exception is made in 21 CFR 101.4(2): The descending order of predominance requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section do not apply to ingredients present in amounts of 2 percent or less by ...


10

Green vegetables are a good source of calcium, in particular, artichokes, broccoli, and greens (like turnip greens). Other sources of dietary calcium include sardines, canned salmon, raisins, almonds, sesame seeds, and soy beans. ETA: The daily recommended intake of calcium for an adult is 500-1000 mg. If you're curious about how much calcium a particular ...


10

Kosher salt is the same thing (though I'm pretty sure it's not iodized), but the crystals are less dense and larger. There's more air in each piece, and they don't pack together as tightly. That means you have to put a larger volume of kosher to get the same amount of actual sodium chloride (salt). Think of it as the difference between ice cubes (regular ...


10

No. The per-serving nutrition numbers are rounded and only reflect the value for a single serving. A value of 0 simply means "less than 0.5 mg" in a single serving.


10

Can you get leached iron from cast iron? Yes Is it consistent in the amount that you get? No Is it dependent on the food in the pan? Yes How much? It varies hugely dependent on the food. More liquid, acidic foods leach more. How long its in the pan also plays a role. 3 oz of spaghetti sauce could leach as much as 5mg - that's almost 1/3 of the ...


9

I'm going to risk downvotes and say this: If you are concerned about the impact of whatever difference in calorie count cooked vs. raw makes, you are cutting it pretty fine. The margin for error is likely very small--probably smaller than your measuring errors, or the inaccuracy of your kitchen (or bathroom) scale. Keeping an eye on calories is fine for ...


9

Egg whites are a pretty good one. Our local grocery store even sells them in milk carton containers.


9

I learned this trick from an old friend of my Grandmother more than 50 years ago. She put three rounded stones in the pot when cooking soup so they would move about and stop the vegetables and grains from settling and burning on the bottom of the pot. Molly did all of her cooking on a wood/coal fired oven. Many people of my Mother's generation used to ...


8

" ... I am concerned that if I don't deliberately plan meals that provide what we'd normally get from meat in some other way it will be a problem ..." I think this is a common misconception. In fact most people in "developed" countries get more protein than they need (and protein is essentially the only [Edit: energy-providing] nutrient in meat other ...


8

Also does it modify or make the food more nutritious with solar cooker. Not more than any other kind of similar cooking by radiant heat, like baking. There is simply no mechanism by which that could happen. Let's examine some claims I found from Google: from ...


7

Actually, vitamin C degrades with heat. The following, by dietician Jill Irvin, says it all: Vitamin C is one of the least stable of all vitamins in solution and is oxidized readily in light, air and when heated. It is also water soluble. This means that heating in water, (like cooking broccoli in boiling water) causes the vitamin to leach out of ...


7

You should generally trust the USDA. They've put a lot of effort into getting everything accurately measured for nutrition labeling, and in the US at least, pretty much everyone gets their nutrition data from them. That's true in this case: the bodybuilding.com nutrition page says "This database contains data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, ...



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