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13

For 1 cup self-raising flour, add 1½ tsp baking powder+ ¼ tsp salt to 1 cup all purpose flour. (http://www.joyofbaking.com/IngredientSubstitution.html) Edit: Calculation added by Sebbidychef: According to http://www.jsward.com/cooking/conversion.shtml 1 cup of un-sifted all-purpose flour is equal to 120g. Therefore 1000 divided by 120 is 8.3 recurring ...


11

The goal is to keep the surface of the bread from drying out. A wet towel works fine but plastic wrap is cheaper and easier than constantly cleaning wet towels. I have used both methods and haven't noticed a difference in the bread produced. In very dry climates, when I made bread with multiple rises I sometimes had to redampen the towel which was an added ...


10

It may be that your oven is not up to temperature before your first batch goes in. If it's not hot enough your cookies will have more time to melt and flatten before they cook. Try giving the oven 10 more minute preheating time before putting your first batch in.


9

What to do A dough should be generally risen by size anyway, not by time. But it is also very forgiving, so it will probably still give you decent edible bread if you do it by time. The best way is to wait until it has doubled, no matter what the clock shows. But you insist on going by the clock, don't change the time, wait the 30 minutes. It may be ...


7

Do you have a large plastic container? Something like this: . Use a non-permanent marker on the outside to mark the initial volume. A small diameter will make it easier to monitor the volume.


6

I presume you're talking about active dried yeast. In that case, the granules of packaged yeast have some nutritive content to them, so what you observe when you add warm water is a weak form of priming. Priming is the addition of both warm water and a food source, typically sugar or flour, to dried yeast with the goal of 'waking-up' the yeast from their ...


6

A couple of things will lead to less spreading: Shortening instead of butter - butter contains up to 20% water. When it reaches 212F/100C, it turns to steam, expands, and causes things to rise/puff. Also, shortening, as a more processed/refined fat, has a more even melting point, which would cause it to spread less. If you want the flavor of butter, ...


6

To answer this question we should turn to the oracle: http://www.goodeatsfanpage.com/season3/Cookie/CookieTranscript.htm The relevant quote is: "Nothing affects a cookie's texture more than the melting characteristics of its fat. Butter has a sharp melting point meaning that, uh, just a few degrees difference between a solid and liquid states. So since ...


6

Put a serving plate over the bowl. Normal way up so it doesn't slide off and doesn't need washing. Easy! A small amount of surface drying is not going to ruin a bread dough. Think of the millions of bread making machines out there, no plastic wrap required with them, just a reasonably fitting lid that stops air drafts, hence why the towel method worked fine ...


6

Let me suggest a totally different approach: Why not working with the cool conditions instead of against? You could let the dough proof for a long time, e.g. over night in the fridge. This allows for a lot less yeast and hence a less yeasty taste, which is usually desired. Also, more complex flavors develop during long proofing times. (There is a reason ...


5

Unbaked lumps probably mean you aren't mixing it enough. Try starting with a little less flour and knead in more as you go. Another issue is you may not be kneading it enough. Next time try using the windowpane test. You don't have to do this every time, but if you're having trouble with a specific recipe this will help you figure out how the dough ...


5

50C (122F) would be a very high proofing temperature. The thermal death point of yeast is 55C, and you'll definitely hit a point of diminishing returns if you get too hot (most likely, you will have really rapid proofing on the outside of the loaf and an underproofed "core"). I would recommend setting your oven to the lowest temperature, and then once it ...


5

In the winter, I usually get fine results proofing in a bowl with a second bowl inverted on top of it, and then putting the whole thing in the oven, turned off, and just the light on. The light bulb usually produces enough heat to keep the inside of my oven at about 90˚F (32˚C?), and that gives me a good rise.


4

Did you preheat the Oven? At our facility we preheat to 400F then lower to 360F just as soon as we close the door. Why? Muffins do not rise enough (we feel) in a warm oven. The time the oven door is open also cools the oven itself 30-40 degrees. So we preheat, then it's at the right temp as soon as the door is closed. We try to cook fast in a hot oven ...


4

I work with quite wet doughs and bake in a moist environment, but first rise - in a large Tupperware container, lid on but ajar at a corner to let gases escape. second rise - simply dusted with flour. No noticeable skinning at all or loss of oven spring.


3

The series of folds you're doing serve to degas the dough so that it can ferment longer (thus developing more flavor), and to help strengthen the gluten. A third fold wouldn't hurt most doughs, but in the case of a pizza dough it could make it too tight to be easily workable. I would suggest spacing out the other two folds longer in the future. If your dough ...


3

Basic Physics of the System Bread rises (as you probably know) due to microorganisms, primarily yeast, converting sugars into CO₂ + byproducts. The CO₂ forms bubbles, stretching the gluten in the flour. In order for the bread to rise, the microorganisms must produce CO₂ faster than it can escape from the dough. Graphed over time, the amount of CO₂ produced ...


3

I find it's best to judge by texture and dough volume rather than by rising time, because it's so variable with temperature. There is a trade-off for when to degas & shape your bread, and where you draw the line depends on what you're aiming for with that particular batch. If you shape earlier, the loaves are easier to shape, and you get tighter, ...


3

In my experience (and I'm only an amateur baker), you could leave this until you get back and knock it back then. If you leave it really long (e.g. 24 hours), you might find it just doesn't have enough life left in it to rise again properly after, but an extra hour or so will probably improve it - I've always found that recipes err on the side of speed. ...


3

You can use a transparent glass bowl (which doubles as a mixing bowl, so is not a uni-tasker), but since the sides aren't straight you'll have to create a scale for it. Attach a piece of tape to the side (in such as way that you can detach the tape and put it back in the same place—e.g., very top of tape is very top of bowl) Pour in a measured amount of ...


2

Well, if air is the only raising agent, simply add less of it by not beating the mixture as much. Failing that, beat as normal, then give the mixing bowl a couple of (careful) bangs on the counter top to knock the air out it again. A bit of experimentation will be necessary to get the right results, I think: perhaps pour some of the mixture into the tin as ...


2

If the muffins have a slightly chemical flavour, it could be that there is not enough acid in the recipe to react with all the baking soda. Bananas do contain malic acid and citric acid but you could try adding some lemon juice to be sure. You could also play around with the proportions of baking powder to baking soda. Try 1 1/2 tsp baking powder and just ...


2

I've been letting my pizza dough rise in reusable plastic containers with plastic lids (I coat the bottom and sides of the containers with a bit of olive oil so that the dough doesn't stick). Seems to work just fine, and it's incredibly easy.


2

Once you have gotten the bread to rise a second time, you want to get it in the oven ASAP after it has risen to the level you want. You could always deflate it, and let it rerise, if you've gone past what you wanted, but your yeast may not have enough energy to go a third time.


2

Puff pastry is a laminated dough, with very strong gluten development, so an extra couple of days in the refrigerator should not have caused problems. 450 F seems like a typical temperature, and the time seems in the normal range. The only thing you have mentioned is that is definitely outside the standard treatment is trimming the edges with a butter ...


2

That book, or at least the recipe you linked to, basically has you making a loaf of bread out of a pre-ferment (poolish, sourdough starter, levain). Using a pre-ferment gives more flavor and a better shelf life. If you maintain a sourdough starter for a few days, regularly feeding it, you'll see it rise and fall regularly. Ideally, you want to use it when ...


2

Try placing the buns closer together on a smaller baking tray, this should stop them spreading and force them to rise.


2

As it turns out, my dough was very cold. Due dilligence: here's a full answer. One of the requirements of yeast for fermentation is appropriate temperature. Cold dough straight from the fridge won't rise, or it will only rise very slowly. 25-30°C is a recommended temperature range for rising, although cooler temperatures can work. Duh.


2

Make sure your proving environment is maintaining temperature. If you are making the dough with blood temperature water then the residual heat in the dough will get the yeast going but when it cools down the yeast may cease to be active. The dough should double in size on the first prove. Also make sure your flour is proper strong flour and that the ...



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