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31

Making bread without sugar is nothing strange - I do so several times a week! The wheat flour (or whatever you're using) contains enzymes which, when you blend it with water, breaks down starch to sugars which fermenting agents such as yeast or lactobacilli can feed off. The Wikipedia page on sourdough has more info.


28

You do not need sugar to make bread. The majority of traditional, rustic breads use just 4 ingredients - water, yeast, flour, and salt. Consequently, rising times are slower (usually resulting in better flavour) and the bread goes stale quicker (hence, for example, the French practice of buying fresh bread every day). Sugar softens bread by slowing gluten ...


26

Creaming puts the air bubbles into the mixture. The baking powder only helps enlarge the bubbles, not make them. In cookies the creaming plays another essential role, which is to help dissolve the sugar. To cream the butter keep it cool and do it for a few minutes (at 65°F, harder in the summer). It has recently been discovered that cookie dough is ...


26

If you juice your own carrots you would see how sweet your carrots actually are. When you juice a carrot, you are extracting the liquid portion (which contains the majority of the sugars) from the cellulose. Since the cellulose is somewhat flavorless — it tastes pretty much like paper pulp — you are essentially ...


24

Yes! Sugar is often used as a "wet" ingredient in baking. That means it needs to be dissolved in the water in order to prevent too much gluten from being produced (making the result fluffy/flaky, and not chewy). Different sugars hold different amounts of moisture (for example, brown sugar holds more than white) and using sugar with crystals that are too ...


21

Sugar is not really a wet ingredient, it's just treated as one in certain types of baking (i.e. cakes). When making a cake or other "fluffy" baked good, you want a fairly small amount of gluten to be produced, otherwise you'll get a chewy texture instead, and you definitely don't want a cake to be chewy like bread. Dissolving sugar in the water inhibits ...


21

I assume, by sugar you mean sucrose. However, yeast actually prefers glucose and maltose, see nutritional requirements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and also proofing. Luckily, we get glucose and maltose "for free" from the flour, see this article on bread chemistry: Flour naturally contains both α- and β-amylases, which between them break down some of ...


20

There are a variety of tips for quickly softening hardened brown sugar here: 10 Ways to Soften Hard Brown Sugar. The one that worked best for me personally, when I had to do this in a hurry, was to chip off a large chunk of the hardened sugar, put it in a (microwave-safe) Ziploc bag with a damp paper towel, and microwave it for 5-10 seconds at a time until ...


18

How archaic and fun! I whipped out some Google-fu and found the following for you: Tincture of Capsicum You can actually buy this on Amazon: Cayenne Capsicum Tincture 2 Ounces. It's available other places, but I saw prices as high as 2x this. (9 ml ~ 0.3 oz) Essence of Ginger This is from a late 19th century Jamaican cookbook (Classic Jamaican Cooking: ...


15

I know that one shouldn't give honey to infants because their immune systems aren't developed enough to deal with the C. botulinum spores found in it, but I've never heard that table sugar was unsafe for them. That said, some pediatricians believe that adding sugar to baby food encourages an unhealthy taste for sugar in children and should be avoided. The ...


15

It's to prevent caking. See, for example, the second FAQ on Domino Sugar's website: It is not recommended to substitute confectioners sugar for granulated sugar. Since confectioners sugar has a much finer texture, and it contains a small percentage of cornstarch to prevent caking, substituting can give you unexpected results. Many shredded ...


14

It's going to depend greatly on what you're baking. Sugar serves several different purposes beyond just providing sweetness. Besides sweetness: tenderness by interrupting and minimizing gluten formation. Sugar promotes spread in cookies Retain moisture and extend keeping quality (in baking sugar is actually considered a "liquid" ingredient due to its ...


14

Various references, including this one from Lantic sugar note the shelf-life of granulated white sugar as indefinite or effectively forever. Presuming, likely, that it is stored as you note in a sealed container.


14

The statement "so that bacterias would have something to eat" is incorrect on several levels- including grammatically. Bacteria already have plenty to eat. There is a lot of sugar in milk. Cow's milk is 4-5% sugar. Additionally, giving the bacteria more to eat would allow them to create more acid and make the product more sour not less. The bacteria used ...


13

Sugared bread is something mostly specific to the US. There might be a little sugar in European bread, but not much. From a personal opinion as a Belgian, I have to say that the few time I ate sugared bread (Harry's American bread), I found that it completely ruined the taste of the condiment on my bread, as well as make the bread less suitable to be used ...


11

I do exactly that. I use a clear plastic squeeze bottles. I fill a mug 2/3 full with sugar, and top up with boiling water, stir, cool, funnel into the squeeze bottle, and keep in the fridge door. The squeeze bottle makes it easier to get the right amount of sugar into your beverage. I don't even worry about keeping it sealed. There's nothing much to ...


11

White sugar is generally sucrose and has been heavily refined, so it won't undergo any chemical changes over time. In fact, sugar is actually used as a preservative. Brown sugar is a bit different. It gets hard simply because it loses moisture - i.e. the water evaporates - and that won't cause the taste to change. However, some people have reported brown ...


10

They have a different ratio of white sugar to molasses. Therefore, dark brown sugar is more hygroscopic, and will have a deeper molasses flavor (and color, obviously) They're pretty similar, and you can usually get away with replacing one with the other, but if you want subtle flavors coming through, dark brown sugar might mask it. I've seen ...


10

White sugar was commonly used as a preservative in the past, in much the same way as salt. It's wildly hygroscopic (like salt), and an excellent desiccant, so if you packed something in it, it would accelerate the drying process. This is actually the origin of fruit jam and fruit preserves, which are still common today, even after better methods of ...


10

I'm not familiar with the naming conventions for sugar in the UK so I apologize if I become patronizing. Granulated sugar is the every-day table sugar here. It's what I grab a spoonful for my cereal and such, and it is the kind used in almost all of the baking I've done. Is caster sugar what you usually have around? Caster sugar is called "super-fine" ...


10

You aren't actually trying to cook anything. When you heat a solution, it makes dissolving a solid in to that solution much easier. So you can dissolve more sugar in to hot water than cold water. With a 1:1 ratio, you wouldn't be able to get all the sugar in to solution with cold water. So, you heat the water to allow more sugar to become part of the ...


10

High fructose corn syrup is a preservative. While sugaring your ketchup is good for flavor, HFCS is great for shelf stability, as is the vinegar. The reasons you typically see HFCS in American Ketchups is that it is (1) heavily subsidized and domestic and cheap, (2) farmed by the same companies making the tomatoes, and (3) a preservative. Also, it helps to ...


9

There is nothing inauthentic about using sugar in an Indian dish, even a savory one. For example, Gujarati cooks often add raw sugar (jaggery) to daal and curries. Quoth Wikipedia: "It is common to add a little sugar or jaggery to some of the sabzi/shaak and daal. The sweet flavour of these dishes is believed to neutralize the slightly salty taste of the ...


8

Simple Syrup is sugar that is has been dissolved in water. Heating speeds the process, and also allows the water to "absorb" more sugar. I don't remember the chemistry of why the sugar doesn't crystallize at room temp, but it doesn't. It is typically made in a 1:1 mixture .. heat a cup of water to boiling, add a cup of sugar, stir until the sugar is ...


8

You can still add rice, just wrap it in some cheesecloth first, so it doesn't get mixed with your sugar.


8

There are a couple of things you can do to prevent sugar crystallising. You can add some glucose syrup, or you can 'invert' the sugar by adding some acid, namely cream of tartar. Both should be readily available, online if not at your supermarket. Cream of tartar is also useful when making meringue.


8

This research paper suggests that, in general, pH, temperature, and ions don't generally significantly affect our perception of sweetness intensity. Since temperature and acidity are the two major differences between iced and hot coffee (depending on preparation), this more or less rules out the possibility of a chemical difference. "The main finding ...


8

Everyone who likes ketchup surely likes the sweet and tangy taste it always has, so in some sense the question's a bit circular. But I imagine part of the reason people started making it that way is that the sweetness helps cover up the sourness, so it can contain more vinegar (which helps preserve it) without tasting awful.



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