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9

Pie and tart are regional (North American versus Western European) terms for essentially the same thing. Some will argue that the pans make the difference (see below), but I don't buy that story. There are some stylistic differences that appear quite often, but nothing that makes them truly different things: Pies tend to be deeper, and have more filling ...


5

Cook one layer, pour it into the shell, and chill until firm. When it's firm, cook and add the second layer. You don't want to add the curd while it's still super hot. Let it cool a bit, but pour it before it begins to set. Repeat with the third layer. That procedure should give you very clean and lasting layers.


5

Well, it seems that Mazarin's predecessor (and at the time, mentor), Cardinal Richelieu, was instrumental in the creation of the Treaty of Bärwalde, which made Sweden and France steadfast allies (with the French basically funding nearly forty thousand Swedish soldiers). Once Mazarin replaced Richelieu there were already strong diplomatic ties between the two ...


5

Pies originally were specifically to denote enclosed items (the crust sealed the item that was to be eaten). In many cases, the crust wasn't actually eaten -- it was a nasty charred thing that was discarded. In time, pie crusts improved to the point at which you'd eat the whole thing ... but the star was the filling, not the crust. Tarts, on the other ...


4

Doughs are docked to keep them from blowing up with steam while they bake. Thus- you only do it in applications that you don't want blown up- like blind pie crusts. Puff pastry applications, for example, you usually do want to blow up so you will get a lot of light layers. If you are baking a pastry with a filling then the filling will keep this from ...


3

RockyFord's comment has the heart of the matter, I think--the acid in lemon juice will begin to denature or curdle to the proteins in the eggs if it comes into direct, undiluted contact with them. You can minimize this effect by beating together all of the ingredients except the lemon juice prior to mixing in the lemon juice. This will add a lot of sugar ...


3

An analogue thermometer isn't too accurate. Besides, it sounds like you measured the oven temperature, not the tart filling. So I suspect that it was the heat after all. A custard with both eggs and starch needs to be thoroughly cooked. The reason is that yolks contain an enzyme which liquidifies starch. It doesn't happen outright, but will happen while ...



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