I'm using the following ingredients to make the cake:
some kind of flavour essence like vanilla essence
pinch of baking powder
pinch of baking soda (though I've tried without it)
powdered sugar or jaggery
I've noticed that the cake tastes good but it tends to rise sideways.
I'm not sure what's causing that but from the look of it it seems that the uppermost layer formed a crust that wouldn't move and the insides had to forcefully burst out because the crust was so tight. Not positive here though. I'm following everything that's written in common recipes.
Edit: Since everyone is commenting on the oven, I used an Air Fryer actually at 160 degree Celsius (which is supposed to be the recommended temperature for baking the cake).
Edit2: Observations on the way the cake has burst through sideways.
The way it has risen - it's as if the top part solidified and formed a thick crust. The structure in the middle tried it's best to rise up but the top crust didn't allow the rising up nor did it allow bursting. The middle part had no choice but to keep pushing until one edge of it gave way. I find it strange that the top crust didn't burst anywhere. Rather the side burst and the middle part leaked out from there. The top is so strong that in spite of the sideburst it still retains its shape. Makes me feel like the top is "suffocating" the middle.
In fact, when I take out a slice I see that the top layer is so strong that it gets easily separated like it were a cloth piece. The middle part is squishy kinds.
The structure of the cake makes me feel like something is wrong with the ingredients due to which the top formed such a strong crust. Could it be something to do with fat in the milk? This reminds me of the time when milk is boiled and the round layer of fat is formed at the top. As the milk boils it doesn't allow the bubbles to escape and starts "suffocating" the liquid underneath instead of bursting.
Perhaps we need to use skimmed milk for the cake? Also, I didn't use any water at all. Only milk. Could it be that I need to use 50% water + 50% milk so that the top crust isn't so strong and it becomes more "burstable". That way the middle structure can jump out from whichever direction it wants? Perhaps that would make the bursts happen in different areas and create a more "normal" cake. Or am I wrong here?