Another factor is that decent gloves allowing some fine-motor skills as well as easy putting on and off have to fit well, and not everyone has the same size hands. So every chef has to carry their own pair of gloves, or every station has to have a set (colour-coded perhaps). Even then they're slow to put on and take off, and quite likely to end up getting dropped on the floor in the process (e.g. if you're carrying something as well). This adds up to time and cost savings for not using well-fitting gloves. Simple oven gloves could be used but don't have much fine control.
In practice if you provide ill-fitting clumsy gloves, people will only use them if they know they'll burn themselves otherwise, while something instant and easy is more likely to be used in a precautionary way. To put it bluntly, inappropriate safety gear makes things worse.
The actual risks of using a suitable cloth are minimal once you're used to it.