You are asking two questions here:
- Do commercial kitchens prefer gas stoves, and why?
- Is there another type of cooker that performs similarly to a gas range?
I will first attempt to answer your first question. I will consider the three main types of cooker: gas, electric (including variants like ceramic or halogen hobs) and induction. Most professional kitchens, as far as I know, use gas cookers for the following reasons
Both gas ranges and induction ranges tend to have a higher overall output than electric ranges. This means you can get things hotter, and get them hot faster, which in a professional environment is crucial. Think massive batches of soup, or searing steaks.
Anyone who's ever tried cooking on an electric hob knows that they are painfully slow to heat up, and even slower to cool down. This makes it much more difficult to quickly change cooking temperature without moving the pan off the burner. While some restaurants use massive hotplates (that typically are gas-powered anyway) and manage the heat by moving the pans anyway, a regular hob performs better if the cook can quickly change the heat output.
Not all materials can be used on an induction hob. In particular, aluminium or copper cookware does not work well on induction. Thus, if you want to quickly heat up an aluminium roasting tray to deglaze it, you're out of luck if you have an induction cooker. I believe it is possible to buy plates made from ferrous metal (that will heat on induction) and put those between the hob and your aluminium cookware, but that requires more gear and more hassle.
Because of the glass covers and lack of an open flame, induction and electric cookers can be easier to clean than a gas hob. Additionally, they do not produce any soot, so will potentially keep the rest of the kitchen (including cookware and extraction hood) a little cleaner. In a commercial kitchen with rigorous cleaning procedures, this may or may not be a consideration.
Sturdiness and repairability
Induction hobs and a lot of electric hobs are covered with glass plates. While this glass is tough, it is not as tough as the metal used for gas hobs. The construction of induction- and electric hobs is also more complex than that of gas ranges, making it more difficult and more expensive to repair them when they do get damaged.
Really out of my depth here, but because of the aforementioned differences in construction complexity, I can imagine induction burners being more expensive than gas hobs. They will definitely be more expensive to repair. Depending on your location, electricity may be cheaper than gas, though, so there could be an argument for a non-gas hob based on running cost.
If most cooking schools and restaurants use gas hobs, most cooks will be used to gas hobs. Also, there will be a much stronger market for purchase (new or used), spare parts and repairs. It just makes sense to pick the option everybody's familiar with.
Gas range alternative for home use
Chris H's answer covers this well. If you want top performance, gas or induction are the way to go. Chris also explains why the on-off-switching of induction and electric cookers tends not to be an issue, unless you are dealing with very thin/light cookware, which will probably not be well-suited for induction cooking anyway.