Can I add fresh minced garlic to a jar of Huy Fong chili paste without risking botulism?
Ingredients: Chili, salt, acetic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium bisulfite as preservatives, xanthan gum.
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According to WHO "botulinum will not grow in acidic conditions (pH less than 4.6), and therefore the toxin will not be formed in acidic foods (however, a low pH will not degrade any pre-formed toxin)."
Paste is probably acidic enough on it's own to kill any introduced botulinum from the garlic -reasonable quantity added-
To be extra sure, I would sprinkle mince garlic with a pinch of vit C or equivalent acid (and a pinch of salt to draw out flavor) before mixing.
Heat also sterlizes: "Despite its extreme potency, botulinum toxin is easily destroyed. Heating to an internal temperature of 85°C for at least 5 minutes will decontaminate affected food or drink."