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there's baking soda (or sodium bi-carbonate) and and baking power for for numerous baking applications (if there's a cooking use, please call me out on that!). baking soda creates porosity via reaction with an acid, which generates carbon dioxide (the heat then increases that initial, induced unit volume). however, baking powder (as it is so marketed, "double-reacting") creates that initial porosity via carbon dioxide generation via acid AND heat.

so, my question is this: is there any leavening agent that provisions this initial porosity via ONLY heat alone? in case anyone is wondering, please forgo any kind of natural or "sourdough"-type approach to solving this question.

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Ammonium carbonate:

Ammonium carbonate may be used as a leavening agent in traditional recipes, particularly those from northern Europe and Scandinavia (e.g. Speculoos, Tunnbröd or Lebkuchen). It was the precursor to today's more commonly used baking powder.

It acts as a heat activated leavening agent and breaks down into carbon dioxide (leavening), ammonia (which needs to dissipate) and water.

(The Lebkuchen recipes I am familar with all use sodium bicarbonate and eggs, though, for some particular alkaline taste that you want to get.)

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Kind of - you can use eggs as leavening. Actually what happens here is that beaten egg retains air in the form of bubbles. The air expands when heated, creating a leavening effect. It doesn't escape as it is trapped in the solidifying matrix of the egg as it cooks.

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