No, you cannot temper it. Chocolate is pretty much the only edible product where tempering is worth it.
"sounds an awful lot like cocoa butter" - only because the explanation you came across was not detailed enough. Cocoa butter is a much simpler case. Only three fatty acids (oleic, stearic and palmitic acid) account for over 95% of its composition, and it so happens that, when cooled under the right conditions, they form a regular lattice with very pleasant sensory properties.
Butter, on the other hand, is not just any old crystalline lattice. It is a complicated emulsion:
The fat globules, solid crystals, and water droplets are embedded in a continuous mass of semisolid “free” fat that coats them all. *
So you start out with the mammal's udder packing fat into globules, which have their own membrane. When the butter is churned, most globules split, and out comes the semisolid fat. The solid fat crystals start clumping into each other, and some of the water comes out of emulsion (=buttermilk, in the original meaning of the word). Then you remove that free water, and you are left with a mix of structurally complicated components. It is not a single regular structure, and there is no mechanism for it to self-order, the way cocoa butter does.
Bottom line, you are left with goat butterfat now. It will never go back to be butter, but as a consolation, it is still perfectly edible.
* McGee On Food and Cooking