What is the difference between duram whole wheat flour and hard amber duram wheat
As with any edible plant, durum wheat comes in different cultivars. "Durum whole wheat flour" is the generic term covering all cultivars. When one brand says "amber", they are referring to a subgroup of cultivars. It is analogous to saying "apples" and "red apples". One of the brands seems to have chosen a more "poetic" style in their ingredient list.
the word "hard" in the ingredient list is a mystery
"Hard wheat" is just a synonym for "durum wheat", so saying "hard durum wheat" does not offer any specific information. It must be part of their decision to use fancier descriptions in their ingredient list.
Why would the one which is not 100% whole wheat have more fiber?
- It doesn't. When you look at the nutrition labels, both have 6 grams of fiber - admittedly, I didn't find a product of either brand claiming 18% DV, but one had 24% and the other 21%, both with an absolute value of 6 g fiber per 56 g pasta. So they are using different DV references, or they made a mistake.
- There is no "the one which is not 100% whole wheat". Both are 100% whole wheat, see above.
I am looking for a pasta that is whole wheat with nothing removed or added just gound up.
This can't be guaranteed by labelling. The relevant CFRs are 137.200 and 137.225, and they allow quite a few processing steps for whole (durum) wheat flour. Ascorbic acid and bleaching have to be listed on the label of the flour itself, but I'm unclear whether they have to be mentioned on the label of pasta made from such flour. Added enzymes don't have to be declared, and they can of course process it in other ways, without adding more stuff.