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I’m recently reading an article about bread science https://www.researchgate.net/publication/370828942),and there is one section dealing with the physical changes of the dough during oven spring ,among others there is a statement which indicates that rise can be caused by a ‘release of CO2 from the saturated liquid dough phase into the surrounding gas cells’ So here is the question:what is exactly a liquid dough phase?And what are the surrounding gas cells that the CO2 is released to?And how is it released? The questions may sound a bit foolish but please lend me a hand and I’ll do my best to learn! Thanks in advance.

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Gas cells are bubbles that have formed in the dough.

The "liquid dough phase" is the moist dough, or perhaps the "moisture of the moist dough."

The "liquid dough phase" in properly fermenting bread dough is (or becomes, in the early phases) saturated with CO2 at whatever temperature it's at, which is how the bubbles form in the first place (and the dough rises.)

As water heats (and the liquid of the dough is mostly water, even if made with milk, say, since that's mostly water) it can't hold as much dissolved gas in general, or CO2 in specific, in solution, so as the dough heats, gas comes out of solution in the liquid part of the dough, and gets into (I'd guess by diffusion, but not 100% certain that's the right mechanism here) the neighboring bubbles (gas cells) distributed throughout the dough, (they are closer to most of the moist dough than the surface is) making them larger.

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