You can bake a great many fried things without changing the recipe at all. Take jalapeño poppers for example. My typical jalapeño popper recipe is as follows:
- Halve and deseed some jalapeño peppers
- Fill with cream cheese
- Dip in egg
- Dredge in breadcrumbs (panko or italian seasoned)
- Freeze for at least 30 mins
- Deep fry until golden brown
Step 5 is important when deep frying something with a cheesy or otherwise gooey filling. If you were to deep fry room temperature cream cheese it would liquify nearly instantly and likely leak out into your oil, making a giant stinky mess. A similar thing happens when deep frying room temperature Snickers or Mars bars.
By starting with a frozen cheese, it will get just hot enough to melt but still have structure.
To translate this step to baking step 5 simply becomes optional. You could bake these at around 325 F (160 C) until golden brown (probably 10-15 mins or so?) without freezing. The oven will be a much gentler heat, and if you do get a little cheese leakage, it won't be that bad. If you froze them then you'd simply bake them longer (probably 25-30?).
So how does this apply to other typically fried things? I think it all comes down to the breading. If it requires a wet breading then it's not going to translate well to baking. e.g. deep fried snickers
The best breading to translate well to baking is a simple egg (maybe a bit of milk) dunk and a dredge through some bread crumbs. I think the important factor here is that, besides the egg, the breading is already cooked. So whether baking or frying you're really just heating up the food.
Wet batters containing raw flour, on the other hand, need to be cooked. The frying process nearly instantly steams all of the moisture out of the wet batter causing a fluffy fried shell. This reaction cannot occur in a baking environment, plus your batter would pool on the bottom of your pan.
This should translate well to the other things you mention, but I'm not so sure about fries. I could be wrong here (I don't buy frozen fries), but I believe that frozen fries are already partially pre-cooked in some manner. I'm not sure whether it's a partial fry or a par-boil, but I don't think they're completely raw. Same thing goes for tater tots.