Which type of pan can you recommend for pan-frying tofu, stainless, aluminum, or carbon steel?
Cast iron rules! but if i was to choose from the options you provided i would pick the heaviest / thickest one regardless of the material.
The correct pan is the one you're most comfortable with. Any of those materials can give you good results if used correctly, and you might even get away with cast-iron or nonstick cookware.
In fact, this is true for most cooking tasks. Exception: if the food will ruin your pan, as with acid on cast iron/carbon steel, and eggs with many materials, if not oiled enough.
For a beginner, I'd recommend a non-stick pan, and a wide one. Otherwise, you're liable to have the crust on the fried tofu stick to the pan. Most tofu is fairly delicate.
Two tips: 1. dry and press the tofu before frying it 2. do not crowd the pan.
If you're an experienced cook, see BobMcGee's answer.