For example, Iike cayenne pepper is spicy and marjorum has a smoky flavor. I just want to learn the different flavors of each seasoning, so I can know exactly what seasonings to use for the different types of food. Trying to educate myself, I want to become a chef someday.
Spices can sometimes taste different when their context(other spices and foods) or preparation is altered. Other than trying known recipes, I occasionally taste an unfamiliar spice in several states over a period of time:
- raw in cheek for a little while
- Infused (like tea). Try some plain, some with salt, and some with sugar, (an acid like lemon juice or vinegar may be a third option).
- Cooked and raw with a grain like brown rice. Try some plain, some with salt, and some with sugar.
- Cooked and raw with meat.
Some spices have surprised me, such as turmeric, which was familiar to me with savory dishes, but which I had never previously tried with sugar. Some spices taste about the same everywhere raw or cooked but you'll find new uses, like cinnamon in broth, while others will only be useful cooked or uncooked.
Excellent question! I've wondered this myself many times, and I can't claim to know the best way. This is what's worked for me.
I browse through recipes, food blogs, and videos that I find interesting. I try making some of what I see and learn by taste. In other situations, I just get an idea by reading about the recipe. From there, I might associate cayenne with spiciness and try to remember that when I eat foods with cayenne in them. Overall, it just happens with time and experience.
One other thing that helps is to stick to making one or a few types of cuisine, at least for a few preparations. Cultures tend to have their own core spices. I find that if I've only tasted a spice once or twice, it's not easy to remember, so I need to have a few repeat encounters with it in a few-week span before I feel familiar with a it.
Not to sound obvious, but the best way to learn what each spice tastes like is... to try them!
Smell them, taste them, and explore different combinations with different foods.
Start with the classics (for instance, taking recipes from a book) and start exploring variations of those. Sometimes you will end up with awefully tasting things, that is a necessary part of the learning (and part of the fun too).
Don't restrain yourself to recipes. If you think cumin tastes good with xyz, there you go, put it in, even if it is not the classic spice to put in it does not mean you cannot use it.