To which temperature could I safely heat my cast-iron pan on the stove, without any contents? I don't want to re-season it afterwards. Afterwards, I'd just let the pan cool off in room temperature. The base is ~0.5 cm thick.
If it is completely empty, you probably can't reach dangerous temperatures with your stove. The iron itself melts at 1500°C. The seasoning can be burnt off at much lower temperatures, a self-cleaning cycle in the oven is enough for it (500°C). I have taken an iron pan to above 400°C without damaging the seasoning. (I don't know exactly how high it was, my thermometer doesn't go above 400°C). This was on an induction stove set at maximum, I doubt that any other kind of stove can produce such temperatures.
Edit I just heard an example showing that you can take a pan on a resistive stove to above 500°C with prolonged heating, so you should be measuring it if you plan to go that high. (and if you have a thermometer in this range, you can post your findings to further limit the range of 400° to 500°C, because I'm curious).
But if you say "no contents", be careful that it is actually just the pan. You cannot oil it, because the self-ignition temperature (of flash point) of vegetable oil is low, Wikipedia gives it at 327°C. It could just smoke terribly and throw a spark or two when you reach it, but it can also flame up and then you are holding a small brand in your hand.
I bring my cast-iron to 500C regularly for steaks. I preheat the skillet in a 525F oven (as hot as it will go), then I put it on my hottest burner (electric coil stove) for 5 minutes. Checked with an IR thermometer, that does in fact get the pan to 500C. Once I answered the phone and let it go for longer than 5 minutes (8 maybe?). It made an audible poof and burnt all the seasoning in the bottom of the pan to ash. So, I'd say 500C for a short amount of time is your absolute upper limit if you want to preserve your seasoning.
Over 720°C you run the risk of changing the hardness and other properties. A domestic stove should not be able to get anywhere near this temperature
This is best done outside on a standalone gas burner. Do not have any liquids near by
Where are you going to get a suitable thermometer from :-)