I'm in the US, looking for bacon like they have in the UK and (possibly?) Canada. However, if I ask for Canadian Bacon, I receive what is basically a processed ham product that I find far less tasty. How can I specify the cut of meat I'm looking for?
This is known as "back bacon" in Canada, and when brined rather than smoked, it's peameal bacon. Canadian bacon is, sadly, usually just some sort of processed ham product meant to resemble back bacon. It's also known here in the US as Irish rashers or British rashers (a rasher is the british term for a slice of the sort of bacon you're after). It can also show up as simply Irish bacon or British bacon. Google any of those terms to find internet vendors.
In Canada, we have lots of different types of bacon. I believe in the states, "Canadian" Bacon, as far as I know generally refers to back bacon. Standard Bacon (Also called, side Bacon, Strip Bacon; which comes from the belly), is usually just known as "Bacon". I believe this is true in the states.
What happens when you just ask for "Bacon, please!"?
Wikipedia link of different cuts of bacon. The link also includes the different local terms for bacon.