It is generally accepted that pork and chicken must be cooked completely (unless put through a strong curing process) while certain cuts of beef and lamb can be served on the rare side. Why is this?

Are particular bacteria populations present in some animals but can't survive in others? What is the inherent differences between these animals that makes the difference when eating? How can I objectively decide if it is safe to eat something partially on the rare side that does not involve simply trusting the "common knowledge" of the more experienced.

(Don't get me wrong - I appreciate any and all advice that I get from anyone who is more experienced than I am in anything, but I'd like to know how they came to their conclusions).

  • 2
    Add-on to your question: How come duck is always served medium? One would think it would be similar to chicken...
    – uvesten
    Jun 11, 2012 at 14:52
  • Another add-on: Fish. How come anyone hasn't mentioned the fish meat yet? I'd say raw fish (or even generally raw sea food?) is safe because there are plenty of meals involving raw fish meat, but it's just my opinion. Sources are welcome. Apparently E.coli can't swim...
    – Jeyekomon
    Aug 12, 2014 at 16:02

4 Answers 4


Beef (and Lamb): The surface of beef is often contaminated with pathogens such as e-coli. However, the meat is very dense and the bacteria cannot migrate from the surface into the flesh. Therefore, beef is safe to consume once the external temperature exceeds, 160 degrees F. The internal uncontaminated meat is safe to eat raw.

Pork: Like beef the surface of pork needs to be fully cooked. Unlike beef, pigs harbor a parasitic roundworm called Trichinella spiralis. Infection with the worm is called trichinosis and can be fatal. This worm is killed when the flesh reaches 150 degrees F and is held there for several minutes. Therefore pork is safe to consume when cooked to medium. (Commercial pork in North America almost never has the roundworm present. Almost every case (all?) of trichinosis in the last 15-20 years have come from undercooked wild boar or bear meat). Trichinella spiralis can also be killed by freezing (time and temperature dependent).

Chicken: Almost all chickens have Salmonella or Campylobacter present on the surface (at least). However, chickens have a less dense flesh than pigs, sheep or cows. Therefore, the bacteria can migrate deep into the flesh. Also, the processing of chickens is much more invasive than the previously mentioned animals which also means the interior meat can get contaminated. This means the meat must be cooked to well done throughout.

Duck: With duck it seems to come down to a matter of processing verses chicken. Also, they are raised in a much less confined manor, which helps prevent the spread of pathogens. There is still a chance of getting a salmonella infection from undercooked duck but cooking the breast well done basically ruins it, so people take the (small) risk.

Ground meat: Grinding meat, by its nature, implies the surface and the interior is mixed. Therefore, one must assume the meat is fully contaminated and must be entirely cooked to well done.

  • 1
    Interesting info, I never heard of these things. Do you have more in-depth links for "chicken meat is less dense"? Also, the sentence "almost all chickens have salmonelly or campylobacter" sounds improbable, do you have a source? (I agree that campylobacter is a common bacterium, but I would expect it on other meats too. Salmonella infected chickens are not that common, as far as I know).
    – rumtscho
    Jun 11, 2012 at 20:50
  • 3
    Bacteria found in 83% of chickens (usatoday.com/news/health/2006-12-04-chicken-bacteria_x.htm). 37%–51% Campylobacter in Canada (cmaj.ca/content/177/6/570.full)
    – Swoogan
    Jun 12, 2012 at 3:57
  • 3
    Chicken meat is less dense than beef or pork (busycooks.about.com/od/cookinglessons/a/foodsafety.htm). Not the most authoratative source, but I could not find anything else that explained why cooking the surface of chicken meat would not follow the same reasoning as beef.
    – Swoogan
    Jun 12, 2012 at 4:01
  • 1
    I suspect it's not really "density" but fat content; ducks are fairly fatty and fat tends to protect pretty well against bacteria, but chicken is very lean. Farming/confinement and simple popularity may also be a part of it; I think duck is a lot less likely to be contaminated, and being less frequently eaten, there's no reason for farmers to try to mass-produce it on the same scale as chicken.
    – Aaronut
    Jan 14, 2013 at 0:25
  • I'm leaning more toward it being how deeply the quill of the feathers penetrate the flesh during processing. That coupled with the availability of pathogens on the surface to "inject" into the meat.
    – Swoogan
    Jan 15, 2013 at 22:52

Chicken meat and eggs carry the risk of salmonella. Salmonella are bacteria which cause severe symptoms, and can even end in death, unlike other, milder types of food poisoning. They are also hardy bacteria, and the temperature needed for them to die quickly is above the temperature for medium rare. In theory, you could eat poultry medium rare if you ensure that it has stayed at the lower temperature for a sufficiently long time, but the relationship is not linear, and if you are not well acquainted with the times needed and don't use a thermometer consequently, it is safer to heat it to well done.

Pork is known as a possible source of trichinosis, which is caused by a parasite. It also needs very high temperatures to die. Systematic veterinary control has almost eradicated trichinosis in developed countries for commercial pork, so eating pork at medium rare is considered reasonably safe today. Care should still be taken if you are preparing wild boar as a significant risk of trichinosis remains in game hogs. (Small slaughter houses and butcher shops may offer pork from wild boars in (following) hunting season.)

Other meats have their own share of nasties, especially E.coli - they are usually just unpleasant, but some strains can be very dangerous, like the one in Germany last summer. Be warned that with modern safety procedures, you are more likely to get your food poisoning from produce (because it is often not heated, but eaten as salads, etc.) than from meat. So don't forget to wash your veggies.

  • 3
    Trichinosis strains found in pork can be killed by freezing, too. And it dies fairly quickly (<3min) at 136°F. See law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/9/318.10 or
    – derobert
    Jun 11, 2012 at 14:38
  • Why is trichinosis not present in cattle? Is it because they can die from it where as hogs can withstand it and pass it on to their predators? Or what about salmonella in other birds besides chicken? Is it not present in ducks as well? I know some of these questions will start to border on biology... but I was wondering if anyone had knowledge in this area. I understand if that is an unreasonable request given the scope of this site.
    – Jon
    Jun 11, 2012 at 19:19
  • 2
    It is normal for parasites to have a very specific relationship with their host. Trichinosis worms can't live in anything but pigs, so beef is safe from it. As for salmonella, it can live in many animals. I don't know why it is usually connected with chickens, probably historically this has been the most common source of outbreaks.
    – rumtscho
    Jun 11, 2012 at 19:27
  • @rumtscho Trichina spiralis worms are not specific to pigs, they can also live in humans, bear, rodents, and horses. The majority of known trichinosis cases in the US over the past 5 years have been due to consumptions of undercooked game (mostly bear), not pig. Jul 15, 2015 at 18:22
  • @Didgeridrew OK, it seems I generalized too much. My comment should have read "of the typical meats farmed for human consumption in cultures of European descent, trichinosis only lives in pigs". My grandfather was a vet whose job was to inspect meat of animals slaughtered at home, and only the pigs were inspected for trichinosis. I don't think he was ever presented with game though, certainly not bears. Thank you for pointing out the inaccuracy in my comment.
    – rumtscho
    Jul 15, 2015 at 18:28

You can serve almost any protein medium rare. I wouldn't want to eat poultry at that temperature, mind you.

Cooking the protein to high temperature is not the only way to cook it safely. The high temperature kills almost all of the bacteria in seconds. But a lower temperature for a longer period of time does just as well.

For instance, this chart lists how long it takes to pasteurize (kill the bacteria and other organisms) some common protein.

From http://www.douglasbaldwin.com/sous-vide.html#Table_5.1 -

Pasteurization Time for Meat (Beef, Pork, and Lamb)
(starting at 41°F / 5°C and put in a 131–151°F / 55–66°C water bath)
55°C    56°C    57°C    58°C    59°C    60°C
Thickness   131°F   133°F   134.5°F 136.5°F 138°F   140°F
5 mm    2 hr    1¼ hr   60 min  45 min  40 min  30 min
10 mm   2 hr    1½ hr   1¼ hr   55 min  45 min  40 min
15 mm   2¼ hr   1¾ hr   1½ hr   1¼ hr   60 min  55 min
20 mm   2½ hr   2 hr    1¾ hr   1½ hr   1¼ hr   1¼ hr
25 mm   2¾ hr   2¼ hr   2 hr    1¾ hr   1½ hr   1½ hr
30 mm   3 hr    2½ hr   2 hr    2 hr    1¾ hr   1½ hr
35 mm   3¼ hr   2¾ hr   2¼ hr   2 hr    2 hr    1¾ hr
40 mm   3½ hr   3 hr    2½ hr   2¼ hr   2¼ hr   2 hr
45 mm   4 hr    3¼ hr   3 hr    2¾ hr   2½ hr   2¼ hr
50 mm   4½ hr   3¾ hr   3¼ hr   3 hr    2¾ hr   2½ hr
55 mm   5 hr    4¼ hr   3¾ hr   3½ hr   3 hr    3 hr
60 mm   5¼ hr   4¾ hr   4¼ hr   3¾ hr   3½ hr   3¼ hr
65 mm   6 hr    5¼ hr   4¾ hr   4¼ hr   4 hr    3¾ hr
70 mm   6½ hr   5¾ hr   5¼ hr   4¾ hr   4¼ hr   4 hr

61°C    62°C    63°C    64°C    65°C    66°C
Thickness   142°F   143.5°F 145.5°F 147°F   149°F   151°F
5 mm    25 min  25 min  18 min  16 min  14 min  13 min
10 mm   35 min  30 min  30 min  25 min  25 min  25 min
15 mm   50 min  45 min  40 min  40 min  35 min  35 min
20 mm   60 min  55 min  55 min  50 min  45 min  45 min
25 mm   1¼ hr   1¼ hr   1¼ hr   60 min  55 min  55 min
30 mm   1½ hr   1½ hr   1¼ hr   1¼ hr   1¼ hr   1¼ hr
35 mm   1¾ hr   1½ hr   1½ hr   1½ hr   1¼ hr   1¼ hr
40 mm   1¾ hr   1¾ hr   1¾ hr   1½ hr   1½ hr   1½ hr
45 mm   2¼ hr   2 hr    2 hr    1¾ hr   1¾ hr   1¾ hr
50 mm   2½ hr   2¼ hr   2¼ hr   2 hr    2 hr    2 hr
55 mm   2¾ hr   2¾ hr   2½ hr   2½ hr   2¼ hr   2¼ hr
60 mm   3 hr    3 hr    2¾ hr   2¾ hr   2½ hr   2½ hr
65 mm   3½ hr   3¼ hr   3¼ hr   3 hr    3 hr    2¾ hr
70 mm   3¾ hr   3¾ hr   3½ hr   3¼ hr   3¼ hr   3¼ hr

Table 5.1: Time required to reduce Listeria by at least a million to one, Salmonella by at least three million to one, and E. coli by at least a hundred thousand to one in thawed meat starting at 41°F (5°C). I calculated the D- and z-values using linear regression from O’Bryan et al. (2006), Bolton et al. (2000), and Hansen and Knøchel (1996): for E. coli I use D554.87 = 19.35 min; for Salmonella I use D557.58 = 13.18 min; and for Listeria I use D559.22 = 12.66 min. For my calculations I used a thermal diffusivity of 1.11×10-7 m2/s, a surface heat transfer coefficient of 95 W/m2-K, and took β=0 up to 30 mm and β=0.28 above 30 mm (to simulate the heating speed of a 2:3:5 box). For more information on calculating log reductions, see Appendix A. [Note that if the beef is seasoned using a sauce or marinate which will acidify the beef, then the pasteurizing times may need to be doubled to accommodate the increased thermal tolerance of Listeria (Hansen and Knøchel, 1996).]

There is more of this information available. Look for sous vide cooking times to see the appropriate cooking time for you choice of protein.


Traditionally pork and chicken have been more disease ridden, carriers of parasites, and have high surface bacteria counts. So thorough cooking has always been advised

If you know the source of the pork or chicken, you can cook it rare too. Some cultures will eat it raw

It all comes down to how much you know and trust your meat provider

There are also doggy beef and lamb suppliers out there, that you would be best to thoroughly cook beef and lamb from them too

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