This answer doesn't include anything about Speck.
There is a great article by Roberta Schira where the differences between Prosciutto di Parma and Jamón Iberico are explained.
I'll try to summarize the article below, but please check the full article which has many more details...
... they are both raw hams but entirely different. Both belong to the category of top quality cold cuts, both are eaten sliced and both are made from the leg of pork.
The essential difference between these two ham varieties is that Parma raw ham can be enjoyed as an ingredient or accompaniment, while Jamón Iberico is religiously consumed on its own.
Prosciutto di Parma has a rounded shape. The ham slice is red with white fat only around the outside edge. When cut, the slice should not look shiny but moist.
Jamón Iberico is coral red in colour with infiltrations of fat and the cut slice is small and rectangular in shape.
The Italian prosciutto is produced in Parma province in Italy, whereas the Spanish ham comes from the regions of Salamanca, Extremadura and Andalusia in Spain.
Prosciutto di Parma is aged for at least 12 months. The ageing process of Iberico ham ranges from 24 to 36 months.
Only the 100% Italian natural meat of traditional pig breeds of Large White and Landrace are selected, raised on a diet of genuine foodstuffs such as corn, barley and whey, aged at least 9 months and weighing on average 160 kg.
Authentic Iberico ham must be made entirely from the meat of black Iberian pigs, left free to roam in a pasture where they feed off oak acorns, as well as the aromatic herbs growing wild.
Prosciutto di Parma is machine cut into extremely fine slices.
Jamón Iberico is hand carved.
Nothing but salt is used to produce Prosciutto di Parma and it is forbidden to use chemical substances, preservatives or any other additives. Neither is smoking or freezing permitted.
Preservatives are allowed in the production of Iberico ham, even though producers do not all use the same ones.