You can easily rescue overproofed dough if you just feed it, knead it, and let rise.
But OP wanted to rescue it "without second rise". That's not possible - unlikely to fix any dough without some flour, kneading, rising, etc.
Yeast/starch are unlikely issues given the slow single rise; rather yeast bubbles up, but dough too weak to hold. Well developed gluten mesh is required, e.g. poorly kneaded doughs collapse with a slight shake.
For those who just want to rescue overproofed dough (which is how I reached that question):
I once forgot the dough outside 21C (70F) for 30 hours, covered. That's over-overproofed. It smelled like strong liquor but otherwise fine.
I've added a fresh mixture of just white flour and water (⅓ of original overproofed) to the overproofed dough, kneaded manually 7 minutes, 30 minutes rise, 1 hour in oven - and to my surprise it was delicious.
No need to add sugars, presumably enough starch in added flour. Nor yeasts, presumably enough left in the overproofed batch. Yeast inactivity would be an issue had the dough not risen at all, but a collapse signals a weak dough.
Noticeably, the dough rose rather well and its final texture was superb: firm build but fluffy inside, pores of even size and distribution, nice crust, and melts-in-the-mouth feeling when you take a bite. I had honestly feared it would be a waste of time (would flatten or have aftertaste). I've since done it successfully many times.
Nowadays I often 'neglect with intent'.. (overproof later add flour and knead)
Overproofed dough acts like a pre-ferment or bread starter, which is actually good and makes the bread better (overproofed dough is not a starter but similar in function)
I based my experiments on answers here, which were crucial to my rescue attempts. This just affirms the basic notions here, and expands on them: a rescue operation is easily possible even in dire conditions, provided second proof.
- The overproofed dough was made with simple white flour, water, and minute amounts of black molasse, canola oil, and yeasts.
- Obviously never use dough that was left outside if you have incorporated ingredients that may spoil (dairy eggs etc)