As nobody seems to have a good source to official information beyond Mando's FDA link, I will tell you of my experience.
In Balkan villages where cows are held in traditional ways and not inspected by veterinarians, the accepted wisdom is that the milk has to be boiled on the day it is bought, and drunk within the next 2 or 3 days. The boiling itself is short, as boiling milk forms a large foamy head climbing up the pot. As soon as the head is formed and starts going up, the milk is taken from the fire. The milk is held outside until cooled to room temperature, then returned to the fridge (note that with newer fridges, this may not be necessary, there is a question about that somewhere on the site). The housewife also inspects the milk for signs of curdling or acidic smell before using it. If milk is just startling to turn sour, but not yet there, she may re-use it in a product where it gets heated again, for example the local equivalent of pancakes. I should also mention that in these villages, the people know each other, and they do not buy milk from farmers they suspect of having low hygiene standards.
The above practice would not be considered safe by the safety standards of the FDA, but then, the FDA is opposed to the consumption of raw milk in general. It is certainly more dangerous than buying supermarket milk, the danger of the terrible diseases like listeriosis being low but present, and it may give you an upset stomach once every few hundred glasses of milk consumed. It is a matter of personal risk preference if you want to try it or not, but among the people who consider such consumption normal, this method seems to limit food poisoning to acceptable levels.
A second, more radical stance is not to boil the milk at all. The flavor is different as opposed to boiled, and some people prefer it. This is more prevalent in Germany and some areas in France, where 1) there is stricter veterinarian control on animals, and 2) the cows are milked with a machine, which reduces the contamination of milk as compared to manual milking. In this case, the milk is refrigerated immediately upon milking, and the consumer keeps it refrigerated all the time. It is typically bought in small amounts and consumed within 36 hours of milking, preferably even less. Again, the people who do this on regular basis are the ones who buy the milk from their neighbours and have personally observed the hygienic conditions in which the cows are held. People are aware that they are handling a somewhat high-risk product, and populations at risk (e.g. pregnant women, toddlers) do not use it.
I don't have any sources about these practices beyond personal observation. Again, they seem to work out for large communities by their own safety standards, but they are unsafe by many official food safety standards around the world, especially US ones. If you want to do it, it is on your own risk.