Since the Turkish coffee and the Moka pot both work by boiling/steaming the coffee, so assuming they are from the same bean, is there a significant difference between the two? How would it be best described?
There is a significant difference in how the two operate.
Turkish coffee works by heating the water to a boil, with no added pressure. The coffee, with gronds, is then transferred into a cup to seethe, before drinking.
In a mocha pot, pressure will typically rise to as much as 1.5 bar, and the resulting liquid is free of grounds.
Given the radically different extraction methods, the end result of the two are likely to be radically different. My experience, taken from memory, follows:
Turkish coffee goes through a sequence of mouth feels, from completely clear, to grainy, almost muddy, with coffee grounds. This also affects the flavour of the coffee. At the beginning, it is much like a strong filter brew, but tends to get bitter towards the end of the cup, which is also, in part, why it is traditionally served in very small cups. In addition, it is often spiced with cardamom, and often sweetened with sugar.
Coffee from a mocha pot has a consistent mouth feel all the way through the cup, as the grounds are left in the pot. Due to the pressurised extraction, the flavour notes are closer to an espresso than filter coffee.
The main difference is in the consistency of the actual liquid coffee.
Coffee made in mocha pot, is very homogenous in texture and flavor. You will experience "even flavor" from the first sip all the way through the cup. Also 100% of the mocha pot coffee is drinkable.
However, Turkish coffee, develops 2 to 3 layers of subtle feel in flavor. The top layer is always mild and least saturated with coffee. The mid layer is more like a normal coffee, and the bottoms is strong with coffee flavor, a little muddy, and of course the very bottom is a coffee sludge and should not be consumed. Nonetheless, the sludges are never strained or separated and it is part of Turkish coffee characteristic and considered fun!
Since making turkish coffee involves the most basic type of a pot, and no pressure or steam, the coffee is grounded at its finest level possible and it feels like a powder much similar to flour. That kind of a grinding level is not necessary for any other coffees.
Aside from the grounds in your cup, Turkish coffee tastes more like a strong coffee whereas Mocha pot coffee is usually more bitter and closer to espresso.
Turkish is as fine of a grind as you can get. It should be almost powder. If you blow on it , it should fly like a dust-bowl. I have used it in the Moka. However, since it is so fine , the grounds will travel up with the coffee. The end result will have grounds. It is intense, and you have to like it that way. Espresso is less fine and does not make it through the metal Moka filter, so the coffee is intense , but less thick.