The main difference between types of wood is hardness -- a softer board will be more prone to damage and absorb liquids more quickly, while a harder board may require you to hone your knife more often.
What's likely going to be more significant is how it's constructed:
- Is it a solid piece of wood? If so, that's going to warp horribly when it gets wet.
- Is it a bunch of strips of wood, with the grain running in the direction of the strips? It'll be more stable, but still might warp a little bit.
- Is it a bunch of bits, stacked together so the end grain is on the surface? It'll be the most stable, but it's probably going to be thicker and heavier.
- If it's constructed from multiple pieces, what size are they? Narrower strips will warp less than wider strips if it's similar wood (hardness, size of grain, etc.) but increases the cost.
I'm also not a huge fan of end-grain boards ... they're so heavy, I use something else to transfer, rather than moving the whole cutting board ... for me, that means that if I get some water on the counter, it might get under there, and then I have mold starting to grow. (yes, I admit, I don't lift and sanitize under my board after every time I cook)
More important in my selection are issues like:
- Does it have feet? Makes it more stable, but non-reversable
- Does it have a grove to catch drippings? Useful when carving meats, but reduces the effective work area.
- How expensive is it? Exotic woods are great for decorative cutting boards (placing out some cheese at a party, etc.), but I'd never use them for my main prep.
- How tight are the joints? Look for gaps in where it's glued together ... any gap is a place for bacteria to grow and fester, and a change it'll crack prematurely.
Personally, when I have a choice, I'd probably go for maple.
The only ones I haven't been a real fan of are bamboo (I know, technically a grass not a wood)-- I love it for cooking utensils, but I'm not a fan of it for cutting boards. They wear down my knives faster, and they seem to die earlier (I don't know if this is an issue w/ being harder means they're less strong, as they can't absorb forces, an issue with those who manufacture bamboo boards, or something specific to the material (eg, does it not absorb the glue as well?)
But I'd probably first consider all of the other considerations that were mentioned (unrelated to the specific wood) at Cutting boards: What are some general tips on purchasing and using a cutting board?