Eggs are great.

You see eggs in lots of dishes in American cuisine. Egg salad made from hard-boiled eggs is an American cookout standard. Fried eggs often go on burgers; poached eggs frequently find themselves atop sandwiches and salads. Scotch eggs are a frequent side dish or appetizer. But in American cuisine, eggs are almost never the focal point of a dish.

Except at breakfast.

Omelettes, scrambled eggs, and quiches abound at breakfast and brunch.

At what point in history did eggs become a "breakfast-only" main dish?

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    When you say "Western", do you mean "US American"? From my European perspective, quiche is for lunch (not breakfast) and omelette is for dinner. The bar where I will probably have lunch today will almost certainly have scrambled eggs with something (often jamón serrano, but not always) as a main course; eggs are also the protagonist of a number of tapas; I've had dinner in a restaurant in Paris which pretty much only sold omelettes. – Peter Taylor Aug 8 '14 at 8:53
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    @PeterTaylor, I guess I do mean the U.S., then. I didn't know that, but I'm certainly jealous of your lunch. – hairboat Aug 8 '14 at 13:53
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    More generally, I'd suggest that simple preparation is what defines what we think of as breakfast foods... not combining things into complicated dishes. This is why quiche and egg salad are for lunch and fried/scrambled eggs are for breakfast, IMHO. – Patrick87 Aug 8 '14 at 22:27
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    @Patrick87 I disagree with you about quiche. Maybe that's a regional thing, but to me it's a breakfast food. Deviled eggs are an appetizer or a side, and rarely if ever a main course unto themselves. Likewise egg salad: it's mashed up with other stuff and served in a sandwich or salad or as a side. The egg is not a main course unto itself. – hairboat Aug 8 '14 at 23:45
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    Sorry, but I think this is off topic. It is a very interesting question, but not one whose answer is known to cooks, it's more anthropologic. And with this type of question (I call them cultural whys), there is much danger of people writing down plausibly sounding speculations which can turn out to be completely wrong, but others nevertheless believe them. They are a seeding grain for urban mythology, so to speak. So I'll close the question - because I'm afraid we cannot give you an objectively true answer. – rumtscho Aug 10 '14 at 12:46