Depending on what you mean by "the inside", no, it's not possible for something to freeze from the inside out. The physics of the situation come from the second law of thermodynamics heat cannot spontaneously move from a cold place to a hot place. So, when you put an object in the freezer, the surface starts to give up its heat to the surroundings, then the interior starts to give up its heat to the surface and so on. The net effect is that the interior is always at least as hot than the exterior while the meat is in the freezer.
When you take it out of the freezer, the opposite happens: the outside warms up first because the environment gives heat to the outside, which passes it on to the inside and so on. So the only way that your turkey could be frozen on the inside but not on the outside is if it was frozen the whole way through and partially defrosted.
The only remaining question is what exactly you mean by "the inside". If you mean that, for example, the centre of the breast was frozen then the whole thing was definitely frozen at some point. If, on the other hand, you mean that the part of the breast closest to the bone was frozen, then it could be that bone conducts heat better than flesh, in which case the flesh next to the bones would freeze first because of the cold air in the cavity.