I used an 8 1/2 by 11 piece on a sheet cake and used transfer paper to put the image on the rice paper. Can I run the rice paper through the printer or will it jam up the printer? or is using the transfer paper the only way to get the image on the rice paper?
Is the rice paper intended to be eaten? Regular ink from the printer is not edible. But if you have edible ink and if we talk about the same rice paper...
then: It depends on the printer. You (ovbiously) must use inkjet printers.
These kinds of printer ...
bend the paper by 180°. I just tried to bend a sheet. It broke when the distance between the parallel ends next to the bent area was about 1 cm. If I take the acceleration and harsh drawing-in into account I think the paper would break.
These kinds of printer don't bend the paper as much as the printers before. If it is possible, I would look into the driver software to slow down down the printing (some drivers offer a "quite mode").
The smooth side should be the side to be printed on. I would not expect the image to be good.
If you use the paper Catija mentioned in a comment: Try to bend the paper as it would be bent in the printer. If it doesn't break / rip, it may be worth a try.
I never tried this. If you have a valuable printer or don't want to spend too much time on cleaning the mess after an unsusccessful trial, I wouldn't risk it.