It's common to see vague statements about how people with limited lactose tolerance may be able to eat yogurt, because the bacterial fermentation eliminates some of the lactose. However, I haven't been able to find any quantitative information on how much lactose remains. I'm sure it varies widely with different cultures and methods, but I'd love to have even a few specific examples where someone fermented some yogurt and assayed it for lactose.
Similarly, I'd like to know how much of the lactose ends up in the form of lactic acid vs. glucose and galactose monosaccharides vs. other metabolites. This seems potentially important in terms of predicting the caloric content and metabolic effects of yogurt (e.g., blood glucose response).
I've done some searches on the web and in the scientific literature, but I haven't been able to find information on the carbohydrate composition of yogurt or other fermented foods. Can anyone point me to a source?