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Can I use fermented milk product as starter culture for vegetable fermenting?

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Yes. Whey, primarily a byproduct of cheese-making (but also from yogurt, kefir &c), can be used to inoculate a variety of ferments. In the book The Art of Fermentation, for example, there are instructions for using it as a starter for fermenting fruit, vegetable, seed/nut and sour tonic beverage ferments. The most important thing is that the whey not have been heated (most likely in cheese-making) to a point high enough to kill the bacteria present.

My experience is limited (I usually drink my whey or put it in a soup), but I'd imagine you wouldn't want to use anything milkier than whey to ferment veggies with. Fermented milk itself can be used to propagate a mother-culture (e.g. with sour cream, buttermilk, yogurt &c.) but I'm guessing you wouldn't really want to dump these into vegetables.

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You can, but it depends what you are trying to achieve with your vegetable fermenting as to whether you should.

i.e., my survey of the lore of sauerkraut yielded a few suggestions to do that sort of thing, but they were definite outliers, as were the suggestions to use old sauerkraut liquid to "start" new sauerkraut, or obviously paid/pandering advice to buy starter cultures of some sort.

By far the most widely accepted view was that sauerkraut needed nothing of the sort, simply cabbage and salt and a lack of air, with the bacteria already present on the leaves doing just fine, thank you, without any "help" beyond the right amount of salt (generally accepted as 2-2.5% by weight of the cabbage) and a clean place to work, preferably without oxygen.

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