Thai soups (Tom Kha, Tom Yum etc) are an interesting counterexample - where shallots, peppers, onions ... are just thrown in the broth in many recipes. Moreover, there are lemongrass, galangal, kaffir lime leaves and other more specialised aromatics that are almost never sauteed in these, even if the same ARE sauteed (as part of a curry paste) in other dishes.
Also, I have seen good dal recipes where onions, garlic, ginger are just thrown in with the rest and boiled for hours.
And garlic is not infrequently added late and raw to tomato sauces, in addition to sauteed garlic at the start...
EDIT: Frequently, aromatics added raw are crushed, likely so that some of the aromatic juices get expelled easier. Also, if they are themselves inedible, cut in such a way (eg fanning) that they stay in one piece but have maximum surface exposure (lemongrass and galangal, though I find milder/younger types of galangal deliciously edible when they've been stewing in the soup :). What not to do: Add vegetables the same color as whole hot peppers when you have sensitive guests, or black cardamon (more a whole spice than an aromatic) with raisins :)