Try chayote, it's a great substitute for any starch. It's got a nice crisp to it raw, cooks down to a nice texture, and doesn't really have any taste of its own.1 It takes on the flavors of whatever it cooks with; some even use it as a substitute for apples in desserts after flavoring it because it holds up extremely well (think of those deep fried pies you can get at fast food places).
Roasting along with carrots and other vegetables in a stock would leave it with a very nice taste; it won't alter the flavor or outcome of the dish. I frequently use it in soups because getting a piece of it in a bite really amplifies the taste of the stock. It's also rich in vitamin C.
The drawback is that it doesn't break down as easily as potatoes do while roasting, and won't have that sort of mild thickening / fortifying effect. But you could easily work around that.
Alternatively, parsnips (as others suggested) if you can't find chayote, but parsnips and other roots bring a new flavor to the table.
1If you have a very sensitive palate, you will detect a very mild flavor, but it's very easily overpowered by practically anything.