What do you call these in English, before the frying process, and where can they be purchased?
I don't think there is an English word for these. It seems as though we just call them by their Indian name, of which there are several. Pappadam and Appalam seem to be the most common names, although in different regions of India the name can vary slightly. In the picture you posted these are referred to as Round Chips, at least according to one merchant.
A recipe can be found at Awesome Cuisine:
- Black Urad Dal (black lentil flour) – 1 cup
- Salt as per taste
- Cumin Seeds – 1/2 tblsp
- Cooking Soda (baking soda) – a pinch
- Oil – 1/2 cup
- Asafoetida Powder – a pinch
- Clean and spread out the urad dal under the sun for a few hours.
- Then grind to a smooth powder.
- Add asafoetida powder, cooking soda and salt.
- Add enough water and knead well to a thick dough.
- Add oil and cumin seeds.
- Knead again to a chapati dough consistency.
- When the dough starts to turn pale yellow, pinch small balls of the dough and roll them out into thin circles.
- Keep them under the sun (or under the fan) for 30 to 45 minutes or until the moisture has evaporated.
- Store them in a clean, dry container.
- Fry them in hot oil and serve with rice or as desired.