There are a few inconsistencies here.
Exposed aluminium: bare aluminium baking tins and molds are common, and bare aluminium saucepans exist too. What is the difference between those and the aluminium partially exposed in a damaged non-stick pan?
PTFE: Manufacturers and chemists warn about toxic products of thermal decomposition (PFIB). If a complete coating of PTFE is safe at normal cooking temperatures, why should loose flakes of PTFE at the same temperatures be unsafe? If loose flakes were to fall into the flames of a gas burner or onto a hotplate or heating coil, I can see problems, but inside the pan and mixed with food? Surely in that scenario, anything unsafe about flakes in the pan/food would also be unsafe for intact coating too.