What is the difference between the following types of Italian coffee?
Caffè lungo (long coffee)
Caffè corto (short coffee)
Caffè macchiato (coffee with milk)
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This image (from visual.ly) shows the difference between the mixture of ingredients and (possible) cup sizes of various sorts of coffee, including the ones you asked for:
A (caffè) lungo is 'just' an espresso prepared with more (twice as much) water than usual, making it less intense.
A caffè corto, more commonly called ristretto, is the opposite: less water (half as much) is used in preparation than with a normal espresso, making it even more intense.
Another important difference, when you're in Italy, is that you don't order a cappuccino after 10am.