What makes cooking wines and cooking sake considered only for cooking? My thoughts would be how cooking sake has more spices added to it but I'm not sure for wine.
5The question asked is different, but I think the top answer here pretty much answers your question: cooking.stackexchange.com/questions/85518/…– Cascabel ♦Apr 18, 2018 at 20:36
@Cascabel Possibly a dupe?– CindyApr 18, 2018 at 20:50
3I don't know, I'd kind of prefer we end up with a clear answer about exactly what cooking wine is and isn't (realistically including a good bit of what was said in that answer), rather than depending on it being lumped in with the other question, which invited a lot of other information too.– Cascabel ♦Apr 18, 2018 at 20:55
I saw that question but it was asking about a substitute while I'm asking specifically what makes it cooking wine/sake?– Jade SoApr 18, 2018 at 21:41
5I recall a chef saying there is no such thing as a cooking wine/beer/spirit. They said to never cook with something you weren't willing to drink.– Jon PApr 19, 2018 at 23:06
As my answer is quite long, it was suggested to add a summary up front. Here are the main points along with a little more info.
In the US, commercial cooking wines found in the grocery store, usually on the aisle with vinegar products, contain salt and other preservatives. The main reason for this is stability, giving the products a longer shelf life after opening. Other reasons may include taxation and regulations. The same is true of cooking sake.
In the US, drinking wines that are usually cheap or of lesser quality may be considered cooking wines. Sources state that the difference between these wines and wines that one would prefer to drink is quality. Also, these wines may contain a higher amount of alcohol than those labeled as cooking wines. Due to a higher alcohol content, one may achieve more complex or deeper flavors.
Based on other answers and comments, salted wine doesn't seem to be common in many other countries.
Some wines that are considered to be cooking wines, such as Shaoxing (which is a Chinese cooking wine) seem to be quite easy to find with no salt.
As per my comments, I don't feel that there is just one definition or that one blanket statement gives a full and complete answer to this question. Thus, my quest to provide an answer that covers more ground.
Cooking wine, depending on location can mean several different things. As noted in the answer above, it is different in Germany than in the US. Even in the US, there is much conflicting information, as well as many different products considered to be cooking wine.
From Wine Folly, which is written by a certified sommelier:
Just so you know, the major difference between wines sold as cooking wines vs. regular drinking wines is quality. If anything, cooking with a regular drinking wine will give you a better tasting dish because the quality is much higher.
From leaf article: Differences Between Cooking Wine and Drinking Wine:
Although cooking wine and wine for drinking share some added ingredients, they differ in two main ways:
- Cooking wine contains salt, which gives foods an overly salty or bitter flavor.
- Drinking wine contains more alcohol, which reacts with both heat and certain foods to add complex, deep and new flavors to a dish.
As for why salt or other additives are used, taxes and regulations could be a factor, but the most important factor is that it lengthens the shelf life after the bottle has been opened. Also from leaf:
The added salt in cooking wine gives it a longer shelf life than drinking wine. Cooking wines come with "use by" dates, but are typically good at room temperature for 3 to 4 months. Drinking wine stays fresh for drinking for about 5 days in the refrigerator, but will still work for cooking for 2 months.
From Holland House, either the largest (or one of the largest) manufacturer of 'grocery store cooking wines' in the US:
- Q: What is cooking wine?
A: Holland House Cooking Wine is wine MADE for cooking. Holland House uses premium quality wine stock and has a perfectly balanced taste and aroma. The salt that is added makes it stable in your pantry. This gives you a consistency of flavor you can depend on from the first time you open it to the last drop. Cooking wine is used as an ingredient; it is not meant to be consumed as a beverage.
So, to sum up, there are many different products or 'wines' considered to be cooking wines. There is not just one single answer to the definition of a cooking wine. It totally depends on geographical location and which 'wine' is in question. Is it a commercial cooking wine? Is it a poor or lesser quality 'drinking wine' that is typically considered to be a cooking wine? There are too many variables to sum it up in one brief sentence.
8Note that the "shelf life" you give is for opened bottles, an unopened bottle of wine keeps (much) longer.– remcoApr 19, 2018 at 14:42
5@remco - indeed: one of the attractions for cooking wine is for people who don't drink wine, but wanted to cook typical meals that might just use half to one glass per serving, thus leaving four to five glasses in the open bottle that'll only last for a handful of days...– JulesApr 19, 2018 at 15:16
@remco You are absolutely correct. I should have noted that rather than assume that others would know that. I will edit. Great catch! Thanks!– CindyApr 19, 2018 at 15:57
2I'd suggest summarizing up front: in the US, salt, alcohol content, can be sold more places. It's still probably nice to have the additional detail, but you can also make it easier on people who want the summary. (Also I'm not sure what conclusion we're many to draw from the Holland House quote - of course the manufacturer thinks it's great for cooking, seems like the only trustworthy information is that it's not drinkable?)– Cascabel ♦Apr 19, 2018 at 16:34
@Cascabel Good idea about summarizing up front. Re the HH quote, I added that as a 2nd source saying salt is added for stability.– CindyApr 19, 2018 at 16:39
At least in germany "cooking wine" is more a reference to a cheap wine that just does not taste good if drunken (or is of a low percieved quality). For example a cheap lambrusco, which you get if you order a few pizzas at your local pizzaria, is considered "cooking wine" in germany.
22+1. The top voted answer is US-centric. Maybe it applies to other countries, maybe it doesn't, I don't know. But it is important to recognize that the legal/marketing term "cooking wine" from the USA is not the same as the colloquial term "cooking wine" in other countries/languiages. Apr 19, 2018 at 9:09
1As a french "cooking wine" sound better quality than "vino de messa". but I could be biased. Wine table sound like wine stored in 5L plastic bag. Apr 19, 2018 at 14:37
4@DragandDrop In German, there is no special category for "cooking wine". The expression exists, but it is used as a label every time you cook with a given wine, as in "I have some Pinot Grigio which has been open for 2 weeks, now it's only good as cooking wine". It is not that some wines are produced and marketed as "cooking wine" and others as "non-cooking wine" or "drinking wine" or whatever. Any wine becomes automatically "cooking wine" the moment you use it for cooking, similar to how a tire becomes a "spare tire" when you put it in the trunk instead of mounting it on the axle. Apr 19, 2018 at 15:17
4So, this answer here should not be interpreted as "all cheap wines are automatically cooking wines", it is more of "when a German wants to designate a wine as a cooking wine, they usually try to find a cheaper wine", or "if a German told you of a concrete bottle 'this is cooking wine'", it implies "it is not good enough for me to drink, but I would cook with it". Apr 19, 2018 at 15:21
1This meaning definitely exists in the US as well.– CharlesApr 19, 2018 at 15:35
Cooking wine has added salt so it is unpalatable to drink and legal to be sold in a store that doesn't have a liquor license in states requiring that.
13This is an accurate answer. I would add that the salt also significantly increases shelf life.– moscafjApr 18, 2018 at 21:47
9Yes, it really is that simple. Cooking wine is not "wine for cooking" in the sense that it's been optimized for that. It's "cooking wine" in that you could conceivably cook with it but can't drink it, because it has been adulterated with too much salt for anybody but a concerted alcoholic. It isn't otherwise improved or otherwise made especially suitable for cooking. Apr 18, 2018 at 21:55
Comments are not for extended discussion; this conversation has been moved to chat.– Cascabel ♦Apr 19, 2018 at 19:51
Other answers have focussed on wine, I'll focus on sake.
"Cooking sake" is a rice alcohol. Sake doesn't have any spices added to it. Cooking sake is just a lower" quality sake. It will also likely have other additives like salt and anti-oxidants to stabilise the alcohol. Cooking sake is expected to last in a usable condition for longer than a quality drinking sake. I don't doubt that some cooking sake is made by diluting cheap sake with water and grain alcohol, to reach a certain price point.
There is another alcoholic product that may be labelled as "cooking sake". Mirin is a sweet alcohol exclusively for cooking. It has syrup added to it after fermentation. Its used for example in teriyaki sauces.
As noted in other answers, in the US "cooking wine" is nearly always salted, elsewhere it normally refers to a low-quality wine, for example, one made with sugar and grape concentrate.