There are several types of rices used in chinese cooking. In general, rice is categorised in length: Long, medium and short or glutenous. The length makes a difference, more or less starch. Longer the less starch, the shorter or more round, more starch. Some other factors to consider when cooking rice is liquid amount and time/heat in cooking rice.
I use the term "white rice", which is just brown rice without its shell/husk.
Plain white rice for eating with a meal is usually just long grain rice or even Thai jasmine rice for the fragrance. Depending on rice texture needed: more sticky, more water. Less sticky, less water.
Fried rice is usually made of the same rice as plain white rice, long grain or jasmine rice. Home style friend rice, typically uses day old rice, but restaurants will use fresh cooked rice, just made with less water to make the rice a bit less sticky.
Chinese porridges or jook, can use any type of rice, but usually more short grain to make the porridge thicker in texture. This dish uses more liquid and a long cooking times to get the most out of the rice. Some porridges are very thick and some are less. Typically the breakfast porridge is a bit thicker. When people are sick or for the elderly, a thinner consistency porridge is in order, helps for easier digestion.
Japanese/Koreans tend to use medium to short grain for their rice of choice. This tends to me much more sticky, but without it being soft. Typically sushi rice is made of this short grain rice. One-giri or rice balls are also the same rice, but not seasoned with vinegar as the sushi rice.
Dessert rice is usually the shortest grain rice, or sweet glutenous rice. Mochi,is short grain sweet rice. It is freshly cooked, and actually beaten and mashed to make it one homogenous texture. Other types of sweet rice dishes are usually steamed to get the right texture for the dish.