As I understand it, the philosophy of what pasta to choose depends a lot on the sauce. With bolognese, you have a heavy sauce, with fairly large meat particles and tomato parts. This means, that you need to serve pasta, which is going to be able to "carry" this heavy sauce, which means you shouldn't use spaghetti, but rather tagliatelle, pappardelle or another wide pasta variety. You should also not use short pasta like tubes, shells, penne or farfalle for the same reason: none of the heavy meat and sauce is going to stick to the short pasta and it's going to be impossible to eat.
For light sauces (for example Aglio e Olio) other considerations come into play: You want pasta with a small surface because you want to have a higher ratio of sauce:pasta in any given bite. Thin spaghetti is going to be able to carry more of the light sauce.
Is there a reputable, authentic source of set ruleset for when to use which pasta?
Are there general rules, which could help when deciding when to use the different pasta categories like long pasta, wide / thin, tubes, ribbons, fresh vs. dried?
I am mainly interested in how it is being done in Italy generally. I am also interested in the general logic to the rules.