How do you cook pasta and what temperature?
Most fresh or dried pasta is cooked in boiling water. Bring a pot of water to a boil. Add salt...enough so that you can taste it. I don't measure, but a tablespoon or two in a large pot is usually sufficient. My personal habit is to add salt just before I add pasta. That way, I don't forget. This is important. If you don't use salted water, the pasta will taste bland.
Different sizes and shapes of pasta take different amounts of time to cook. When using commercial, dried pasta, the cooking time is often indicated on the box. Pasta done-ness is a matter of personal preference, but in general most Americans over cook dried pastas and undercook fresh pastas.
For dried, I usually cook one or two minutes below the time indicated on the package, then remove from the pot of water directly to the pan with the condiment so that I can finish the cooking and make them into one unified dish. This usually takes about a minute, because I've created the condiment while the pasta is cooking. I do the same with fresh pasta, which usually takes less time to cook than dried. In either case, I am looking for a little give when I bite into it...not hard, but not mushy.
Then, there are a variety of baked pasta dishes, however, they generally begin by cooking the pasta in boiling water first...but that is probably the answer to a different question.
I'm going to share a family secret with you that I've been using for 40 years... I have no online reference and can only say that this was handed down to me by my Mother, who learned about it from her Mother, etc. How I was taught to cook dried pasta:
Bring a pot of water to a rolling boil. (I prefer to salt my water and add just a smidgen of oil or butter.). Add the pasta, stirring to make sure all of the noodles are under water. Turn the heat off. Put the lid on, don't lift the lid. And set the timer for 20 minutes. [Note: Egg noodles need less time.]
Result: Your noodles will be al dente` without having to constantly worry over them. And you will have that time to finish off your dish, set the table, make the garlic bread, etc.