Yes! sort of
"You Call This Thai Food? The Robotic Taster Will Be the Judge"
Diplomats and dignitaries have been invited to witness the debut of a machine that its promoters say can scientifically evaluate Thai cuisine, telling the difference, for instance, between a properly prepared green curry with just the right mix of Thai basil, curry paste and fresh coconut cream, and a lame imitation...
The government-financed Thai Delicious Committee, which oversaw the development of the [e-delicious] machine, describes it as “an intelligent robot that measures smell and taste in food ingredients through sensor technology in order to measure taste like a food critic.”
This may be your best bet, but it unfortunately doesn't seem to work exactly as you've described. Rather than telling you what ingredients the dish contains, it tells you how closely the chemical composition of the tested dish matches the official version of the dish.
A boxy contraption filled with sensors and microchips, the so-called e-delicious machine scans food samples to produce a chemical signature, which it measures against a standard deemed to be the authentic version...
Because even computers cannot judge taste, the food is compared with a standard derived from a database of popular preferences for each dish. For tom yam, the spicy soup infused with Kaffir lime leaves and coriander, for instance, researchers posted notices at the prestigious Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, requesting 120 tasters. The tasters — students, university staff and area workers — were paid a few dollars each for their trouble. They were served 10 differently prepared soups and rated each one.
The winning soup was declared the standard, and its chemical coordinates were programmed into the machine. As a greater number of tasters’ opinions are programmed into the machine, it will be able to judge whether a dish is too salty or spicy or has other flavor defects, Mr. Sirapat said.
A reporter who visited the laboratory where the machine is being developed brought green curry prepared in the kitchens of the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Thailand. A sample was placed in the stainless-steel tray, the machine made a whirring sound, and moments later it issued a score of 78 out of 100.