I always thought, that only salt is able to penetrate deep into the meat.
However, there are many brine recipes, calling for additional falvors to be added.
How can they penetrate the meat, if only salt can penetrate the meat?
I also recently found the following question: How deeply will the flavors in a brine penetrate chicken?
The answer argues, that some flavours can indeed penetrate the meat, however food color can not.
So which one is it, is marinade a surface treatment only, or do other ingredients apart from salt also penetrate the meat, and if yes which ones?