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Questions tagged [food-science]

All about the scientific theories behind food. Cooking myths debunked here.

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14 votes
3 answers
5k views

Does the oven temperature for a lasagna really matter?

Of all the things that go into my oven, a lasagna is one of the more "wet" or saucy dishes. When a fully baked lasagna comes out of the oven, it still has quite a bit of water content ...
XYZT's user avatar
  • 241
-1 votes
1 answer
97 views

What ratio in grams makes a "complete protein" when combining lentils and rice? [duplicate]

What ratio of rice is needed for lentils to be a "complete protein"? I realize this was asked before, but I insist it was never answered. I am biased because I had the same question, but ...
Mike Steele's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

What exactly is beef bone extract, beef extract, beef fat (all powdered form) and where can I find it?

I was looking at the ingredients list of a pack of beef-flavored soup packet I was eating, and saw it used the following to make the broth: beef bone extract, beef extract, beef fat. It was all ...
doejoe's user avatar
  • 41
5 votes
1 answer
858 views

How precisely does the five ways of cooking an egg, and the issue of low/high heat less/more cooking time, affect the resulting protein?

How precisely does the five common ways of cooking an egg - boil, fry, raw, scramble, omelette - and the issue of low/high heat less/more cooking time, affect the resulting protein molecules? Please ...
Fattie's user avatar
  • 199
22 votes
1 answer
6k views

What scientific evidence there is that keeping cooked meat at room temperature is unsafe past two hours?

I've been part of many discussions about why it's unsafe to store cooked food at room temperature past two hours. An old question (How long can cooked food be safely stored at room/warm temperature?) ...
David Airapetyan's user avatar
7 votes
6 answers
3k views

Improving my approach for plain water boiled brown lentils

I don't know if I am doing things right. How can I improve my recipe? The recipe. Only 2 ingedients water and lentils. I buy 1 plastic package of lentils from the supermarket. Around 500g. I open the ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
291 views

Why are some Chinese rice noodles cooked starting from cold water?

The vast majority of dry pasta/noodles are prepared by boiling water first and then adding them to the already boiling water. However, the instructions on some types of Chinese rice noodles (eg. 南昌拌粉 ...
lambshaanxy's user avatar
  • 1,436
11 votes
4 answers
3k views

Is there a simple method to calculate added calories from cooking in oil?

Is there a "quick and dirty" way to approximately calculate how many calories a dish will absorb from the oils used to cook it's ingredients (Rather than oil used as an ingredient itself)? ...
Aaargh Zombies's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
341 views

Safe Water Boiled Lentils

What are the guidelines for safe water boiled lentils? Like the Big Thaw from USDA
George Ntoulos's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
83 views

Where on the S Curve are the recommended yogurt fermentation times?

In this answer to a previous question of mine it was mentioned that the fermentation phase of yogurt making has 3 phases of growth - lag, logistic and plateau. This means that the growth rate follows ...
User65535's user avatar
  • 1,333
20 votes
5 answers
5k views

What is going on genetically that restricts the number of generations a yogurt starter will last?

There are recommendations online that if you use supermarket yogurt as a starter for home made yogurt then you should not use the resulting yogurt as starter for another batch, or at least not more ...
User65535's user avatar
  • 1,333
2 votes
1 answer
97 views

How stable is fiber?

Does cooking or grinding fiber or foods containing fiber (either soluble fiber or insoluble fiber) convert the fiber to sugar? Does changing the pH for example with the addition of vinegar or baking ...
Donna's user avatar
  • 21
5 votes
1 answer
341 views

Pressure cooked chicken didn't reach 165 but just 160, is that okay?

Okay, I am going from vegetarian->non-vegeterian for the first time, so need some cooking advice. While pressure cooking the chicken in instant pot, I pressure-cooked on high for about 15 mins, and ...
10101010's user avatar
  • 153
2 votes
0 answers
143 views

Could it be possible to make lactose free yogurt with just baking soda and possibly a pH meter?

Yogurt is known to have lactose consuming bacteria (lactic acid bacteria/LAB), which consume lactose, break it down to glucose and galactose and produce lactic acid from the glucose and release the ...
The Testosterone Fanatic's user avatar
8 votes
5 answers
4k views

How can I alter this brownie recipe to make it chewier and more moist?

I started with the original recipe on the back of the All Bran box: 2/3 cup all-purpose flour 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup cocoa powder 2 eggs 1 cup sugar 1/2 cup Kellogg's® All-Bran® Buds cereal 1 ...
Leigh Anne's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
333 views

Food tracking and nutrient differences in "as packaged" vs "as prepared" meal kits

Quick Summary I'm logging what I eat and gamifying it to some degree. Why do carbs and protein in "as prepared" meal kits consistently get reduced from "as packaged" in the ...
steve v's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
1 answer
348 views

A definitive physicochemical guide to smoke points of cooking oils?

I've seen many charts of Smoke Point charts for cooking oils online. And, there all slightly different if not very different. Even MasterClass and SeriousEats seems to have their own versions (butter ...
Prashanth C's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
4k views

Why would a 4 layer cake fall over?

It should have been perfect. A 6 inch white birthday cake. 4 layers, fully/correctly cooked, domes sliced off. It was encased in a correct Italian buttercream (sugar cooked to 248°F) with a strawberry ...
Joe Daniels's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
262 views

Fermenting lactose water solution as if it were milk with lactic acid bacteria

I have been fermenting milk for the last 10 years and used various commercial lactic acid bacteria cultures and starters.  I am well aware that there are thermophilic and mesophilic cultures and ...
Alex's user avatar
  • 51
0 votes
1 answer
239 views

How to keep cream soup warm for restaurant/cafe?

I want to start a soup restaurant/cafe. And I want to keep my soup and cream soup (more thicker and creamy) warm or hot if it can. But I'm not sure how to do that. What is the equipment that I need to ...
Mike's user avatar
  • 3
3 votes
2 answers
214 views

Why doesn't clabbered raw milk become lactose free when left to ferment for a few days?

We know that in yogurt fermentation, not all of the lactose is consumed by the lactic acid bacteria (primarily Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) fermenting the milk, though the ...
The Testosterone Fanatic's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
334 views

When you caramelise an onion are you really caramelising the sugars?

Similar questions have been asked previously, although none have specifically answered the question of whether true caramelisation really happens when 'caramelising' onions (sucrose & glucose ...
Dr Stu's user avatar
  • 213
4 votes
2 answers
323 views

Browning non-meat protein sources as the basis for pasta alla genovese

I am making a vegetarian pasta alla genovese. The sauce is made by first browning sofrito and tough meats, then braising for several hours with an abundance of onions until those onions carmelize. The ...
errt's user avatar
  • 106
2 votes
1 answer
177 views

Looking for technical information for direct/reverse spherification with alcohol

I am trying to create alcohol spheres ranging in ABV from 10% to 40%. Reverse spherification seems like the ideal option because I want the spheres to have that pop feeling and have the liquid come ...
Patrick S's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
310 views

Can you do the Maillard reaction in bulk, and store the result for later use?

The Maillard reaction is crucial to much cookery, in particular the browning of meat prior to cooking stews such as beef bourguignon. This reaction is described science of cooking: The Maillard ...
User65535's user avatar
  • 1,333
0 votes
1 answer
498 views

Eggless milk 'mayonnaise' - how do milk and oil emulsify without lecithin? What's the science behind it?

The recipe: Ingedients: 100 ml milk 200 ml oil Lemon juice Salt Instructions: Whiz 100 ml milk up - 30 secs Slowly add 200 ml oil Move the blender up and down to help emulsify Flavour with salt and ...
TheLostInUnknown's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
657 views

What is the science behind skyr setting without rennet

I've read from multiple sources that rennet used to be one of the ingredients in making skyr but it's not used anymore outside of traditional recipes. I do understand that acid + heat causes milk to ...
Reverent Lapwing's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

How to properly season or marinate steamed potatoes?

When boiling potatoes, most guidance is to heavily salt the water which in turn internally seasons the potatoes. When it comes to steamed potatoes, I’ve achieved fine results salting after they’ve ...
Blythe Simmons's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
322 views

Fat and gluten development - Salt Fat Acid Heat

I am reading Salt Fat Acid Heat. I am still in the beginning but it has changed my approach to cooking, it is much more fun now. Nevertheless, there is something I am not getting when it comes to fat ...
JSBach's user avatar
  • 165
14 votes
3 answers
5k views

Why does baking cooked rice not overcook it?

Many recipes like stuffed peppers call for baking already fully cooked rice for upwards of an hour at ~375 F. I’m surprised the grains come out intact and texturally not that different than before ...
Blythe Simmons's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
129 views

Are these different ways to soften legumes chemically?

When I cook dried legumes (Like beans,chickpea, fava) and trying to soften them in a reasonable amount of time I think about three options, or mixing the three: Soaking Long time cooking or pressure ...
Nachman K's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
2k views

What does salt do in bread dough?

I'm making a bare-bones bread recipe, but I was wondering what the salt does. It looks like it helps it rise, but how does it compare to sugar? How do they interact with each other?
AGreatUsernameChoice's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
191 views

US food label of organic lemon juice

100% Juice 59 servings 1 tsp per serving (5ml) Ingredients: Organic Lemon Juice Calories zero, everything is zero on the nutrition facts and nothing mentioning sugar. Is only organic maple syrup ...
CodeCamper's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
2k views

Bananas have blue/green spots - Are these safe?

In all my years of buying bananas, I have never seen this. In this case, the bananas are organic and sourced from Peru (no idea if that makes a difference or not). I bought the bananas when they were ...
RJo's user avatar
  • 139
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

Natural alkaline foods [duplicate]

Is there any naturally occuring food which is alkaline? Searching the internet for this seems to be futile as every search result talks about alkaline diets, i.e. things that generate an alkaline ...
androidguy's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
496 views

Ruby chocolate explained

I have a problem understanding Ruby chocolate. It is still a mystery for me in many areas: Why does Ruby chocolate have virtually no fiber in it? As I understand, it does contain some cocoa solids ...
user101315's user avatar
19 votes
3 answers
4k views

How do tamales cook?

We just steamed a couple dozen tamales and I'm entirely baffled by the idea that they cook over hours. How? Why? What's happening? I initially figured I could check for doneness with a temperature ...
rtf's user avatar
  • 293
9 votes
1 answer
2k views

Can I add thick cream to whipping cream to increase fat content and make the whipped cream more stable?

In the UK we have double cream which has about 42% fat and whips up beautifully so that its quite stable and can be piped on top of cupcakes and in between cake layers without being squeezed out by ...
Hobbybaker91's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
208 views

Is there any benefit in adding egg to a durum semolina pasta?

I'll be extruding pasta this weekend to use in a constructed food. I have good durum semolina but I'm wondering is whether adding egg will increase the overall strength of the macaroni and spaghetti. ...
bugmagnet's user avatar
  • 133
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Botulism risk in garlic confit [duplicate]

I recently made garlic confit and left it at room temperature overnight to cool. I then looked up storage for the garlic confit and noticed that lots of articles say there's a high risk for botulism ...
solemnpigeon's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

I accidentally sprayed bleach on some apples. Is this dangerous?

When I was bleaching towels, I accidentally sprayed some on apples nearby. The next day, to be safe, I washed these apples for about 15 seconds. Are these apples safe to eat Could someone get sick? ...
abc123.b's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
875 views

What's the science behind citrate's emulsifying power in cheese sauces?

Given citric and tartaric acid can help make a good fondue, how on earth does the non-acidic citrate work? What's the exact science behind sodium citrate? Do they all work by removing the effects of ...
Confused's user avatar
  • 341
37 votes
3 answers
8k views

How did replacing flour in muffins go so wrong?

I had a whole bag of Cocoa Puffs that had gone stale, and thought it would be fun to mess around and see if I could bake something with them. So I aimed for muffins. I more or less based it on a ...
the-baby-is-you's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
318 views

Why does adding salt to the water keep your eggs from exploding?

Why does adding salt to the water you boil your eggs in keeping them from bursting? Interested in the science behind this piece of culinary science
Neil Meyer's user avatar
  • 4,892
3 votes
0 answers
113 views

Hot holding brisket elote/cream corn

So we serve on our food truck a awesome brisket elote cup creamed corn with a Mayo/sour cream base. On the truck we smoke the corn put a dollop of the dressing in the bottom of the cup top that with ...
Greg Fedor's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
279 views

Resealing canned food in Aluminum bags?

I'm a person who goes on long outdoor expeditions and there are many canned foods that I would like to bring with me but the weight of the can is just too much. I would like to be able to open a can ...
user99525's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
110 views

Waterbath canning chow chow

I waterbath canned some chow chow on Wednesday. It was cabbage, cauliflower, red pepper, green peppers, and (was suppose to add green tomatoes and forgot) can I open them, add tomatoes and can again?...
Neva Thompson's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
531 views

Packaging/Bottling and Uncooked Hot Sauce

Forgive me for the post being long! I make a buffalo sauce/marinade that all my friends and family rave about. I’d love to be able to give some to them to keep in the pantry, especially the ones that ...
Cali's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
85 views

salt added to fat acts as a binding agent?

I made maseca dumplings. Maseca is the flour obtained by soaking corn in lime. Maseca needs to be mixed with water to make a dough. The dumplings are added to gently boiling water. When I used only ...
Rolomoto's user avatar
  • 307
4 votes
2 answers
289 views

Should you stream sugar into French meringue?

I’ve heard several opinions on preparing French meringues: stream sugar into fluffy egg whites -or- combine sugar and egg whites ahead of time (e.g. the day before) -or- dump all sugar into egg ...
JustinAngel's user avatar

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